Ghetto, a part of town to which Jews were formerly restricted. The first ghettos were established in Austria in the 17th century, in Vienna at the Unterer Werd (1624). Jewish people were evicted in 1670, and since then this area has been called Leopoldstadt (2nd district of Vienna). In 1661 a ghetto was established in Eisenstadt and a large Jewish community lived there until 1938. Other towns with large Jewish communities were Graz, Hohenems, Wiener Neustadt and villages in the province of Burgenland. In the 19th century the laws that forced Jews to live in ghettos were abolished. Under the National Socialists, ghettos were again established in Poland.
Literature#H. Gold (ed.), Geschichte der Juden in Oesterreich, 1971; H. Andics, Die Juden in Wien, 1988.