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Nepal: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
CapitalKathmandu Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Constitutionseveral previous; latest entered into force 15 January 2007 (interim); note -a Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in 2008 to draft and promulgate a new constitution was unsuccessful and was disolved in mid-2012; a new CA was elected in late 2013 and the parties have committed to promulgating a new constitution by mid-February 2015 (2014)
Executive branchchief of state: President Ram Baran YADAV (since 23 July 2008); Vice President Paramananda JHA (since 23 July 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Sushil KOIRALA (since 11 February 2014)
cabinet: Prime Minister Koirala on 25 February 2014 appointed the cabinet ministers; the cabinet is dominated by the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist
elections: president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 21 July 2008 (next election NA)
election results: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in second round; Ram Baran YADAV 308 votes, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282
Flag descriptionred with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
Independence1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judges
note - Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges are appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: appellate and district courts
Legal systemEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
Legislative branchunicameral Constituent Assembly (601 seats; 240 members elected by direct popular vote, 335 by proportional representation, and 26 appointed by the Cabinet (Council of Ministers); note - interim government Chairman REGMI convened Nepal's second Constituency Assembly on 22 January 2014
elections: last held on 19 November 2013 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NC 26%, CPN-UML 24%, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 15%, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 7%; other 26%; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, UCPN(M) 80, Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal 24, other smaller parties 100; note - 26 seats filled by the new Cabinet have not yet been appointed
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 May
Political pressure groups and leadersThe Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist (CPN-M); note - this party split from the UCPN(M) in June 2012,opposed the November 2013 elections, and is not represented in the current Constituent Assembly
other: a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
Political parties and leadersnote: 120 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly
Akhanda Nepal Party (Kumar KHADKA)
Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist (C.P. MAINALI)
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or UML (Jhalanath KHANAL)
Communist Party of Nepal (United) (Chandra Dev JOSHI)
Dalit Janajati Party (Bishwendra PASHWAN)
Federal Socialist Party (Ashok RAI)
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal (Lok Mani DHAKAL)
Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal (Ram Kumar RAI)
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic (Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR)
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal (Upendra YADAV)
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican (Raj Kishore YADAV)
Madhes Samata Party Nepal (Meghraj SAHANI)
National Madhes Socialist Party (Sharat Singh BHANDARI)
Nepal Pariwar Dal (Ek Nath DHAKAL)
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party (Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE)
Nepali Congress (Sushil KOIRALA)
Nepali Janata Dal (Hari Charan SAH)
Nepa Rastriya Party (Keshav Man SHAKYA)
Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal (Chitra Bahadur K.C.)
Rastriya Janamukti Party (Malwar Singh THAPA)
Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Surya Bahadur THAPA)
Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal (Kamal THAPA)
Sadbhavana Party (Rajendra MAHATO)
Samajbadi Janata Party Nepal (Prem Bahadur SINGH)
Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party (Anil JHA)
Sanghiye Lokatantrik Rastriya Manch (Rukmini CHAUDARY)
Terai Madhes Democratic Party (Mahantha THAKUR)
Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party-Nepal (Mahendra YADAV)
Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal (Bhanuram CHAUDARY)
Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) (Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typefederal democratic republic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Rishi Ram GHIMIRE (since 22 January 2014)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 667-4550
FAX: (1) (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: New York
National anthemname: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)rhododendron blossom
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. BODDE (since 21 September 2012)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (977) (1) 423-4000
FAX: (977) (1) 400-7272