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Nepal: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
CapitalKathmandu Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
National holidayRepublic Day, 28 May (2008), the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 20 September 2015; amended January 2016
Legal systemEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 4 August 2016); note - Prime Minister Khadga Prasad OLI resigned on 24 July 2016
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Constituency Assembly; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 29 October 2015 (next election NA); prime minister indirectly elected by the Constituent Assembly
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI elected president; Constituent Assembly vote count - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 327, Kul Bahadur GURUNG (NC) 214; BHANDARI is Nepal's first woman president
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Constituent Assembly or Sambidhan Sabha (601 seats; 240 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 335 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation (PR) vote and 26 appointed by the cabinet (Council of Ministers); note - political parties allocated more than 30 percent of the PR seats are obliged to follow specified quotas for ethnic groups and within them equal percentages of men and women
elections: last held on 19 November 2013 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NC 26%, CPN-UML 24%, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 15%, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 7%; other 28%; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, UCPN(M) 80, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 24, other smaller parties 100
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; district courts

note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
Political parties and leaders
note: 122 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly ++ Akhanda Nepal Party Kumar KHADKA ++ Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML C.P. MAINALI ++ Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML Jhala Nath KHANAL ++ Communist Party of Nepal (United) or CPN (United) Jaydev JOSHI ++ Dalit Janajati Party Bishwendra PASHWAN ++ Federal Socialist Party Ashok RAI ++ Jana Jagaran Party Nepal (Awareness Party Nepal) Lok Mani DHAKAL ++ Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal Ram Kumar RAI ++ Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR ++ Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal Upendra YADAV ++ Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican ++ Madhesh Samata Party Nepal Meghraj SAHANI ++ National Madhes Socialist Party Sharat Singh BHANDARI ++ Nepal Rastriya Party Keshav Man SHAKYA ++ Nepal Pariwar Dal Ek Nath DHAKAL ++ Nepal Workers and Peasants Party Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE ++ Nepali Congress or NC Sushil KOIRALA ++ Nepali Janata Dal Hari Charan SHAH ++ Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal Chitra Bahadur K.C. ++ Rastriya Janamukti Party Malwar Singh THAPA ++ Rastriya Prajatantra Party ++ Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal Kamal THAPA ++ Sadbhavana Party Rajendra MAHATO ++ Samajbadi Prajatanytrik Janata Party Nepal Prem Bahadur SINGH ++ Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party Anil Kumar JHA ++ Sanghiye Loktantrik Rastriya Manch Rukmini CHAUDHARY ++ Terai Madhesh Democratic Party Mahantha THAKUR ++ Terai-Madhesh Sadbhavana Party-Nepal Mahendra YADAV ++ Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal Bhanuram CHAUDARY ++ Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as Comrade PRACHANDA
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 667-4550
FAX: (1) (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (977) (1) 423-4000
FAX: (977) (1) 400-7272
Flag descriptionred with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
National symbol(s)rhododendron blossom; national color: red
National anthemname: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG

note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king