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Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie, Doppelmonarchie#

Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy): With the conclusion of the Compromise (Ausgleich) with Hungary in 1867 the kingdom of Austria was transformed from a unified state into a Dual Monarchy ( Dualism). The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status. Both states had the same head of state and conducted certain economic, foreign and military affairs in common. A monetary and customs union and an economic agreement which was to be revised every 10 years guaranteed the economic unity of both states. The two states consisted of: 1) "the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat" (Cisleithania): Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Carniola and the Coastlands (Goricia-Gradisca, Trieste, Istria), Dalmatia, Bohemia, Moravia, Austria-Silesia, Galicia and Bukovina; they were subject to the "King of Austria". The collective term "Austria" for these areas was made official in 1915. 2) "the lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen " (Transleithania): Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia and Fiume; headed by the "Apostolic King of Hungary". - In addition, there were the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which were occupied by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1878, incorporated into the kingdom in 1908 and administered by the common ministry of finance. A constitution for both parts of the monarchy was never drawn up. Administration was carried out by the Delegations together with the responsible ministers. The monarch had control over the entire army. The constitution of the Austrian lands was based on the Fundamental Laws of 1867, that of the individual Crown Lands on a decree of 1861 (15 land regulations). The monarch conducted the legislative power together with the Reichsrat, in matters concerning the lands, together with the provincial diets of the Crown Lands. The Reichsrat consisted of the Herrenhaus (Upper House) with 291 (1914) members and the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) with 516 members (elected by the people for 6 years).

The history of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy almost entirely falls into the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I ( Franz Joseph, Reign of ). After Franz Joseph's death (November, 21 1916) his great-nephew took over as Emperor Karl I (in Hungary as King Karl IV).

The Austro-Hungarian monarchy was the second biggest state (following Russia) in Europe and one of the decisive Great Powers. With rich mineral resources, fertile soils, numerous industries, favourable traffic routes, seaports and a territory which comprised the largest part of the Danube area with the Eastern Alps, Sudetenland, Carpathian Mountains and the Adriatic area, it represented an ideal economic area: The alpine regions provided wood, cattle, iron and salt, industrial regions were in particular Vienna, Lower Austria and Styria, agriculture was predominant in the northern lands of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, which also had textile, iron and food industries, as well as mineral coal and brown coal deposits, agriculture and forestry was dominant in Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia. Since the individual economic areas complemented each other exports were low in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The monarchy was a state consisting of various peoples, and the Nationality Question was never solved, despite many efforts ( Federalism), and led to the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the end of World War I. In Cisleithania 35.5 % of the population was German-speaking in 1910 (19.12 % in the entire area of Austria-Hungary), in Transleithania 48 % were Magyars (in Hungary proper 54.5 %, in the entire state 19.12 %), Czechs and Slovaks made up 16.5 %, Serbs and Croatians 10.5 %, Poles 10 %, Ukrainians 8 %, Rumanians 6.5 %, Slovenes 2.5 %, Italians and others 2 % of the population. As regards religious beliefs the population consisted of 77.7 % Catholics, 8.8 % Protestants, 8.7 % Orthodox Christians, 4 % Jews and 0.8 % adherents of other denominations. When Emperor Karl proclaimed a federated multinational state on October 16, 1918, it was already too late. The individual nations had already established their independent states or joined nations outside of the empire. German-speaking delegates of the Reichsrat assembled as the "German-Austrian Nationalrat" and proclaimed the ( First Republic). The peace treaties of Saint-Germain (1919 with Austria) and Trianon (1920 with Hungary) confirmed the distribution of the lands of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy to the Successor States.


K. and M. Uhlirz, Handbuch der Geschichte Oe.-Ungarns, vol. II/2 (1848-1914), 1941; Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848-1918, ed. by A. Wandruszka and P. Urbanitsch, 3 vols., 1973-1980; Das Zeitalter Kaiser Franz Josephs, exhibition catalogue, Grafenegg 1984 and 1987.