Alternative Schools, private schools established under their own charters and based on educational concepts and practices different from those of schools of the public system, for instance regarding entrance qualifications, the level of teaching offered (e.g. 1st to 4th grade, 4th to 8th grade etc.), educational and pedagogical objectives, subject matter, course outlines and number of lessons. One of their objectives is to expose pupils to less competitive pressure. Some schools emphasise foreign-language teaching, while others focus on the results of recent economic or technological developments. Certificates issued by alternative schools are not held equivalent to those obtained from publicly-run schools.