Chemists, Analytical: Apart from alchemy in the Middle Ages and in early modern times, the development of chemistry in Austria is closely related with experience gained in mining and with the descriptions of spas. Chemistry as a scientific subject was pioneered by G. van Swieten (1749 first chair at the University of Vienna). 1777 J. H. Cranz edited the first book on spas in Austria. 1830 L. S. Romer invented a method of producing phosphorus matches.
Around 1840 a paradigm shift occurred in Austrian chemistry, when students of J. Liebig (J. Redtenbacher, A. Schroetter, et al.) re-organized the subject and organic chemistry became the focus of research for a long time. A. Lieben founded a new direction in chemistry, based on the theory of atomic linkage in organic chemistry. E. Ludwig made forensic medicine a scientific subject. Auer von Welsbach discovered the rare earths. Z. H. Skraup dealt with vegetable matter, cinchona alkaloids and achieved the synthesis of quinoline. L. Barth dedicated much time to the research of natural substances, H. Weidel's research concentrated on alkaloids. E. Spaeth´s work focused on the tradition of researching natural substances which was started by F. Rochleder, H. Hlasiwetz, J. Redtenbacher and J. Gottlieb and subsequently more fully developed by Skraup and G. Goldschmiedt. Rochleder and Hlasiwetz were the founders of phytochemical research, a classic field of Austrian chemistry for a long time. J. Herzig investigated tannic acids and vegetable dyes, R. Wegscheider, who pioneered and organised the field of physical chemistry in Austria, concentrated on chemical thermodynamics and reaction equilibrium. F. Reinitzer discovered liquid crystals. J. M. Eder is considered a pioneer of photochemistry, in 1888 he founded the Vienna School of Graphic Arts. C. Doelter founded physical mineralogy in Austria. K. Kellner, a pioneer in pulp production, developed a process for alkalichloride electrolysis. J. Natterer, J. Loschmidt and M. Margulies made significant progress in the field of inorganic chemistry. The methods of determining the contents of nuclear substances originated with S. Meyer, V. Hess, L. Flamm and H. Mache. O. Hoenigschmid achieved outstanding success in researching atomic weights.
R. Zsigmondy, Nobel Prize winner and co-founder of colloidal research, invented the ultramicroscope. F. Pregl, Austria's first winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, pioneered organic elementary microanalysis. F. Emich, Pregl and H. Molisch made Austria a centre of microchemical research ("Mikrochemie" magazine from 1923). W. Pauli examined electrochemical reactions of proteins, E. Abel dedicated much time to catalysis. A. Skrabal set up the theory of simultaneous reaction. In the 1920s A. Smekal predicted the linear dispersion that was later proved in experiments by C. Raman (Raman effect). R. Kuhn was active in biochemistry and F. Feigl in inorganic microanalysis. H. Mark researched numerous inorganic compounds of complex composition. R. Wasicky used microchemical methods for the analysis of drugs. A. Mayrhofer dealt with histochemical methods and L. Kofler with the analysis of organic pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical mixtures. K. J. Bayer developed a process for the production of alumina, which proved outstanding significance to the aluminium industry. In the 1930s O. Kratky developed an X-ray small-angle process.
Literature#W. Oberhummer, Die Chemie an der Universitaet Wien in der Zeit von 1740-1848, in: Studien zur Geschichte der Universitaet Wien 3, 1965; G. Machek, Die Lehrkanzeln und Institute fuer Chemie in Innsbruck, in: F. Huter, Die Faecher Mathematik, Physik und Chemie an der Philosophischen Fakultaet zu Innsbruck bis 1945, 1971; J. Schurz, Von der Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung zum Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, Graz 1987; A. Kernbauer, Das Fach Chemie an der Philosophischen Fakultaet der Universitaet Graz, 1985.