Triple Alliance (Dreibund), a secret defence alliance between Austria-Hungary, the German Empire and Italy extending the Zweibund; signed for 5 years in 1882 and renewed every 5 years until 1914. Romania formed part of the alliance until 1883; in 1887 Bismarck concluded the "Reinsurance Treaty" with Russia, in which Russia was granted neutrality in the event of an Austro-Hungarian attack. In 1908 the alliance was shaken by the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina and in 1914 by the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia (of which Italy and Romania were not informed); it collapsed when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in 1915.
Literature#F. Fellner, Der Dreibund, 1960; F. Fellner and H. Granfeldt, Der Dreibund nach dem Sturze Bismarcks, in: Mitteilungen des oesterreichischen Staatsarchivs, 19, 1966; M. Behnen, Ruestung, Buendnis, Sicherheit, 1985.