b. Jan. 16, 1912, d. Vienna, Nov. 2, 1991, studied law, politician (Austrian People's Party, OeVP). Entered civil service in 1936; from 1941 fought as a soldier in World War II until taken as US prisoner of war. After 1946 active in education, 1952 secretary to Federal Minister F. Hurdes, director of Higher Education Section. 1954-1964 Minister of Education; carried out the school reform of 1962, enabled the concordat of 1962 to be signed; founded several institutions of higher education. 1964-1969 member of the Vienna City Council, Deputy Landeshauptmann and Deputy Mayor of Vienna; 1971 withdrew from political life, wrote several popular historical works.
Publications#Die Haeuser meines Lebens, 1975; Kaiser Franz - ein Wiener uebersteht Napoleon, 1981; Franz von Oesterreich, 1982; Franz Joseph, 1983; Die Antipoden, 1984; Trilogie Oesterreich 1918-1938 (Vom Umsturz zum Buergerkrieg, 1985; Vom Justizpalastbrand zum Februaraufstand, 1986; Vom Kanzlermord zum Anschluss, 1987); Vom Anschluss zum Krieg, 1989.