b. Graz (Styria), July 13, 1608, d. Vienna, April 2, 1657, Emperor, son of Emperor Ferdinand II. Brought up by Jesuits and learned 7 languages; 1625 King of Hungary, 1627 King of Bohemia, 1636 Roman King, 1637 Emperor. After Wallenstein's assassination he nominally took over the supreme command of the imperial troops (victory at Noerdlingen in 1634) and initiated negotiations in 1645 which led to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. finally brought the Counter-Reformation in Austria to an end. was known for his sense of duty and was interested in science, art and literature (1657 Italian literary Academy in Vienna). Particularly interested in music (the first of the so-called "composing emperors") and composed Masses, hymns and a musical drama. His work marked the beginning of the grand era of the baroque court orchestra.
Literature#B. Hamann, Die Habsburger, 41993.