Festivals: The first festivals in Austria were the festivities depicting the Passion at the end of the Middle Ages; subsequently Baroque productions of the religious orders and productions at royal courts as well as many folk festivals which arose from local customs. R. v. Kralik is considered the founder of the modern concept of festivals, which began in Austria toward the end of the 19th century. H. Bahr, H. v. Hofmannsthal and R. Strauss linked this concept with their idea of holding an annual Mozart festival in Salzburg; M. Reinhardt realised the festival in 1920 with the help of F. Schalk, under the name of Salzburg Festival.
Every year numerous festivals are held in Austria: Altenburg (Lower Austria): Summer Festival; Amstetten (Lower Austria): Summer Operetta; Bad Aussee (Styria): Aussee Cultural Summer, Festival of Poetry in Ausseerland; Baden (Lower Austria): Operetta Summer in Baden; Bad Ischl (Upper Austria): Operetta Festival; Bregenz: Bregenz Spring, Bregenz Festival; Eisenstadt: Haydn Festival; Feldkirch: Schubertiade; Forchtenstein (Burgenland): Castle Festival; Friesach (Carinthia): Summer Festival; Gmunden: Gmunden Festival; Graz: Styriarte, Art in the Old City, steirischer herbst festival; Grein an der Donau (Lower Austria): Summer Festival in Grein; Innsbruck: Ambras Castle Concerts, Festival of Ancient Music; Kobersdorf (Burgenland): Castle Festival in Kobersdorf; Krems (Lower Austria): Lower Austrian Donaufestival (Danube Festival); Laxenburg (Lower Austria): Laxenburg Cultural Summer; Linz: Ars Electronica, Linz Summer Festival, International Bruckner Festival; Maria Enzersdorf (Lower Austria): Nestroy Festival at Liechtenstein Castle; Melk (Lower Austria): Summer Festival of Melk; Moerbisch (Burgenland): Lake Festival of Moerbisch; Ossiach/Villach (Carinthia): Carinthischer Sommer Festival; Reichenau (Lower Austria): Art and Artists in Reichenau; Salzburg: Mozart Festival of the International Foundation of the Mozarteum, Easter Festival, Whitsun Concerts, Salzburg Festival, Festivity at Hellbrunn, Salzburg Cultural Festival; Spittal an der Drau (Carinthia): Comedy Festival at Porcia Castle; St. Poelten: Cultural Festival, Lower Austrian Danube Festival, Musica Sacra; Stockerau (Lower Austria): Stockerau Festival; Vienna: Vienna International Dance Festival, Vienna Festival, Klangbogen, "Mozart in Schoenbrunn" Festival of the Vienna Chamber Opera, Wien Modern (Festival of Contemporary Music), Viennale (Film festival), Vienna Schubertiade, Spectaculum. - Passion Plays at Kirchschlag (Lower Austria), Erlsee and Thiersee (Tirol), Wendling (Upper Austria), St. Margarethen (Burgenland). In addition many other places in Austria host cultural events and festivals, such as Berndorf (Lower Austria), Bisamberg (Lower Austria), Gars am Kamp (Lower Austria), Klagenfurt, Meggenhofen (Upper Austria), Mistelbach (Lower Austria), Perchtoldsdorf (Lower Austria), Rattenberg (Tirol), Schwechat (Lower Austria), Telfs (Tirol) and Wiener Neustadt.