Geology: In Austria, the relatively young natural science of geology was characterised by a rapid rise during the 2nd half of the 19th century. In 1847 the Vienna Academy of Sciences engaged W. Haidinger and P. Partsch to systematically research the geological conditions of the territory of the Monarchy. The Geological Institute (Geologische Reichsanstalt) in Vienna (founded 1849, today Geologische Bundesanstalt) acquired special importance as the first of its kind on the European continent. Other significant institutions for research and training were the universities with their chairs and departments of geology: Vienna University of Technology (1843), University of Vienna (1863), University of Innsbruck (1867), University of Graz (1894), Vienna University of Agricultural Sciences (1872), Leoben University of Mining and Metallurgy (1881), University of Salzburg (1967). Various important geologists, F. E. Suess, L. Kober, O. Ampferer, H. P. Cornelius, R. v. Klebelsberg and B. Sander, worked in Austria and gained essential insights.