Graz, Styria, district of Graz, city with own statute, alt. 353 m, pop. 237,810 (1981: pop. 243,166), area 127.52 km2, capital of the province of Styria, second largest city in Austria, situated on the eastern margins of the Alps, on both sides of the River Mur/Mura, downstream from its emergence from the Steirisches Randgebirge (Styrian fringe mountains) and the Graz Hill-Country, in the Graz Basin; administrative, industrial, commercial centre, traffic and transport junction. - Seat of the provincial government and Landtag, all district and provincial authorities (provincial education authorities, provincial archives, provincial library, provincial hunting authorities, provincial welfare and disability offices, provincial forestry commission, provincial police headquarters, etc.), Graz-Umgebung District Commission, Federal Monuments Office, provincial high court and court of appeal, provincial court prison, Federal Office of Security, Provincial Office of Finance, job center, regional office of Post- und Telekom Austria AG, Federal Armed Forces (Belgier, Gablenz, Hummel, Kirchner barracks, domestic office, military training and performance centre, Nittner military airfield at Thalerhof, ammunition dump), customs office, professional associations and chambers, produce exchange, branch office of the Austrian National Bank. Diocesan town (diocese Graz-Seckau), Superintendency of the Lutheran Church, Jewish Community, Islamic centre. Karl Franz University, University of Technology, University of Music and Performing Arts, Fachhochschule, 3 Ludwig Boltzmann Institutes, research centre for eco-system and environmental studies (Austrian Academy of Sciences). Various health insurance offices, several newspapers, numerous advice centres, 6 hospitals, 9 sanatoria, homes for young people, 2 children´s villages; numerous honorary consulates; opera and theatre, concert halls, open-air theatre, provincial broadcasting centre of the ORF (Austrian broadcasting corporation); theatres Grazer Komoedie Comedy, Volkstheater; museums: Joanneum Styrian Provincial Museum (New and Old Gallery, Eggenberg Palace, Museum of Arts and Crafts, Styrian Folklore Museum, Provincial Armoury), Museum of the Diocese, Town Museum, Austrian Aviation Museum (at the airport), Robert Stolz Museum, Castle Hill Museum, town archives, Forum Stadtpark (of the "Kuenstlervereinigung"), Kuenstlerhaus; Provincial Library and 3 other large libraries, Steinberg Observatory, convention hall and convention centre, cultural centre, casino, "steirischer herbst" (avant-garde festival of art, music and literature), "styriarte" (classical music festival). Wienzoedl run-of-river power station (built in 1982, 68,500 MWh), district-heating power station (built in 1963), trade fairground of ca. 182,000 m2 (Graz spring and autumn trade fairs, international trade fair "Technova International"), 3 golf courts, flying school, A. Schwarzenegger stadium with ice rink at Liebenau. Schools: Academic Gymnasium School, 8 Gymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium secondary schools as well as 2 Bundesoberstufenrealgymnasium schools, Gymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium evening school, federal secondary boarding school, episcopal Gymnasium school, Gymnasium school of the Sacre Cœur community, girls´ Gymnasium and Oberstufenrealgymnasium school of the Ursulines, Oberstufenrealgymnasium and domestic science school of the School Sisters, private school of the Modellschule Graz society, 10 vocational schools, 2 commercial academies, Hoehere Bundeslehranstalt fuer wirtschaftliche Berufe (commercial school), Hoehere Technische Lehranstalt and Hoehere Technische Bundeslehranstalt Graz-Goestling schools of technology and engineering, federal school of fashion and dressmaking, school of chemical engineering, private vocational school of business, social academy, 3 conservatories, school of social welfare professions, Caritas school of social workers, domestic science school for the auditively challenged, vocational school for the visually challenged, master-workmen´s school of the Institute of Economic Development (WIFI), school of nursing, academy and institute for vocational-school teacher training, federal institute of kindergarten teacher training, pedagogical academy, federal institute of physical education, training institute for religious-instruction teachers, pedagogical academy and religious-instruction training institute of the Graz-Seckau diocese, vocational training institutes, 2 adult education centres. Hauptbahnhof, Ostbahnhof, Graz-Koeflach railway stations, tram, Castle-Hill cable railway; Graz-Thalerhof Airport (in the municipality of Feldkirchen).
Economy: Graz is the economic centre of Styria and main provider of employment in the region. 137,022 people employed (1991), 54,600 commuters (1989), large service sector (ca 73.4% of the people employed, especially in public service, trade, finance and insurance; 1980-1989 increase of 11.1 %). Manufacturing industries: (1980-1989 decline of 12.1%): construction of vehicles ( Steyr Daimler Puch AG, Eurostar Automobilwerk) and vehicle parts ( SGP Verkehrstechnik GmbH), machine construction and structural steel engineering, machine and apparatus construction, building industry, food, beverage and tobacco industry (breweries, production of meats, bread and confectionery, coffee roasting), chemical industry (especially paints and lacquers) and pharmaceutical industry, electronics and electrical engineering industry, paper-processing industry, printing works; high density of small and middle-sized enterprises, tourism (572,504 overnight stays), central offices of province-owned enterprises: Graz-Koeflacher Eisenbahn, Styria (railways and mining), Steiermaerkische Elektrizitaets AG (electricity) ( STEG), Steirische Wasserkraft- und Elektrizitaets AG, water power and electricity) STEWEAG.
History: The urban landscape is dominated by the River Mur, the Castle Hill and the surrounding mountains. Splendid examples of buildings ranging from Gothic to modern are found. Archaeological finds dating back to the Neolithic Period have been made within the city boundaries; stone monuments and archaeological finds bear witness to the presence of the Romans; the influence of the Alpine Slavs (Karantaner) in the Early Middle Ages is mainly evident in place, river, field and mountain names as well as in the name of the city itself ("gradec", Slavic for "fortified town", "castle") and names of town quarters such as Andritz, Goesting and Strassgang.
Up to the 19th century, the place name Graz was also used in the variant spelling Graetz (also called Bairisch (Bavarian) -Graetz in the Middle Ages, in order to distinguish it from Windisch (Slavic) -Graz (southern Styria). Bavarian settlement after the middle of the 10th century is traceable in names like Baierdorf, Wetzelsdorf, Algersdorf, Guntarn. Remnants of medieval settlement can be seen on the corner of Sporgasse- Hofgasse streets and on the Sackstrasse street between River Mur and the Castle Hill, on which a castle was erected (perhaps in the 2nd half of the 10th century). The settlement was first mentioned in 1128, around 1130 the castle on Castle Hill was the residence of the sovereign of the historical district of Traungau ( Otakare). Around 1147 a street market was established on what is now Sackstrasse street. The oldest documented house in Graz is the "Reinerhof" (1147). Around 1164 a second market was established (on today´s Hauptplatz, main square) under Margrave Otakar III. In 1172 Graz was mentioned as market town, in 1189 as "civitas", in 1268 as "oppidum". From 1379 ( Neuberger Teilungsvertrag), Graz was the residence of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburgs in the Inner Austrian Lands. Graz flourished under Emperor Friedrich III, who erected the castle in its present form as town residence in 1438 (Turkish invasions in 1480 und 1532). After the partition of the lands inherited from Emperor Ferdinand I in 1564, Graz became once again the residential town of the Inner Austrian Lands under the archdukes Karl II (1564-1590) and Ferdinand II, who, after being elected Emperor, moved his residence to Vienna in 1619. However, Graz remained capital of the Inner Austrian Lands (including Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, Gorizia, Trieste, Central Istria).
The town expanded in the Late Middle Ages ("Kaelbernes Viertel" and Burgviertel quarters) and after 1500 (Karmeliterplatz square) and came to include the old, unfortified peripheral towns of Geidorf, Gries and Lend. Because of the continuous threat of a Turkish invasion, ever-present after 1544, the town fortifications and the Castle were modernised by the architect Domenico dell´Allio. In order to counterbalance the collegiate school of the Protestant estates (where the mathematician and astronomer J. Kepler taught), the Jesuit University was founded in 1585. The Counter-Reformation and the end of the Turkish threat after 1664 paved the way for the Baroque. By 1811, most of the fortifications had been abandoned or dismantled, which allowed the town to spread, particularly to the south and east. In 1770, the town houses were given numbers, in 1786 the bishop´s residence was transferred from Seckau to Graz. The Jesuit and previous parish church of Sankt Aegidius was made a Cathedral. In 1869/1672 the Stadtpark (central park) was laid out, in 1811, at the suggestion of Archduke Johann, the Estates founded the Joanneum as a school of technology and museum. The development of Graz into a major city started in 1840, particularly after 1844, when it was connected to the Suedbahn, the railway which links Vienna to the south-east of Europe; Graz came to be known as the "retirement home" of Austria under the monarchy. Greater Graz was born in 1938, when 10 new town districts were incorporated into the city. Liebenau, St. Peter, Waltendorf, Ries, Maria Trost, Andritz, Goesting, Eggenberg, Wetzelsdorf and Strassgang were added to the districts of Innere Stadt (city centre), St. Leonhard, Geidorf, Lend, Gries and Jakomini. In 1988 Puntigam was also made part of Graz. Today Graz is made up of 17 town districts. The town area had increased from 21.6 km2 to 127.29 km2 by 1938. During World War II, particularly in 1944/45, Graz was heavily damaged (16% of all buildings were totally or partly destroyed) and 1,788 inhabitants were killed.
In the 1950s and especially in the 1960s Graz experienced another expansion. In 1974 a law on the preservation of the historical city centre was passed, which stimulated the renewal and revitalisation of the oldest parts of town. The urban development programmes of 1980 and 1990 in particular have strengthened Graz´s role as provincial capital and provided for economic, social and environmental measures as well as traffic and transport strategies. The organisation in centres (city, district and town quarter centres) has largely determined the pattern in which the town has developed. The political changes that have taken place in east and south-east Europe since the end of the 1980s have made Graz increasingly a "gateway to the south-east". 1999 the historic city center of Graz was termed as unique cultural heritage and incorporated into UNESCO´s World Heritage List in the category cultural property.
Religious buildings: St. Aegidius Cathedral (first documented in 1174), 1438-1462 reconstruction as parish church, from 1564 church of the Habsburg Residence, 1577-1773 Jesuit church, since 1786 Cathedral of the diocese of Graz-Seckau; western porch with coat of arms and series of vowels AEIOU ("Austriae Est Imperare Orbi Universo" or "Austria Erit In Orbe Ultima") of Emperor Friedrich III (1456); on the south façade Gothic fresco ("Landplagenbild") by Thomas von Villach (1485), depicting the dangers to the Austrian population in the 15th century: the plague, locusts and the Turks; high altar (1730-1733) with sculptures by J. J. Schoy, altarpiece by F. I. Flurer and statues by F. Robba of Venice; numerous tombstones and sepulchral monuments from various periods since the Gothic, among them the remarkable relief portrait of J. C. v. Cobenzl (1741) by GRAZ R. Donner; 2 reliquaries, originally bridal chests of Paola Gonzaga (before 1477 in Mantova). Next to the Cathedral, the Mausoleum of Emperor Ferdinand II is an important example of Mannerism, built 1614-1637 by G.P. de Pomis and P. Valnegro, interior after 1687, high altar around 1695 by J. B. Fischer von Erlach, frescoes "Apotheosis of the Imperial House" (1688/89), sarcophag of Archduke Karl II (buried in Seckau) and Maria of Bavaria by S. Carlone in the crypt (around 1608); above it, burial site of the bishops. Leechkirche, oldest church in the historical city (underneath burial ground of the Urnfield Culture, 9th /8th centuries B.C.), erected in 1202 as St. Kunigund Chapel (circular building), given as a present to the Knights of the Teutonic Order in 1233; rebuilt after its destruction during the Hungarian invasion around 1255-1293, after 1500 alteration of the west front with its two towers; the sculpture "Enthroned Madonna with the Christ Child" in the west porch (around 1283-1293) is one the major works of the late "Zackenstil" (toothed ornaments as a typical feature) in Austria; figurative Gothic stained-glass windows (around 1333 and around 1500). Late Gothic city parish church Heiliges Blut (around 1439/1440 and after 1480) with Baroque façade (1742) and Baroque gable tower (1781) by J.G. Stengg; "The Assumption of the Virgin Mary", painting by J. Tintoretto; modern figurative glass paintings (1950-1953) by A. Birkle; presbytery with remains of the cloister in late Gothic style of the former Dominican monastery. Gothic Franciscan Church (1515-1519) and Franciscan Monastery; cloister with outstanding sepulchral monuments; Gothic St. Jakob Chapel (1320-1330). Early Baroque Mariahilf Church (in the crypt burial place of the Eggenberg ducal family) by G. P. de Pomis (1607-1636, façade by J. Hueber 1742-1744) with Minorite monastery; altarpiece "Mariahilf" by G. P. de Pomis; in the monastery Museum of the Diocese and summer refectory ("Minoritensaal") by J. Carlone (1691 onwards), magnificent interior, including large-scale painting "Christ´s Feeding of the Multitude" by J. B. Raunacher (1732). - Baroque Hospitaller´s Church and Monastery (1615, rebuilt 1735, consecrated in 1769) by J. G. Stengg, high altar by J. Schokotnigg (1763), monastery and hospital enlarged in the 19th and 20th centuries. Gothic Heiliger Geist Buergerspitalkirche (hospital church) 1461-1463, one of the most impressive sacred buildings in Graz. Stiegenkirche ("church of stairs", first documented in 1343, former monastery church of the Augustinian Hermits), rebuilt 1613-1628 with an original flight of stairs which serves as entry to the church; monastery closed in 1783, church partly renovated in 1984. - St. Antonius Church (1600-1602) with former Capuchin monastery (now Styrian folklore museum founded by V. Geramb). Herz-Jesu Church, most monumental building of the Gothic Revival in Styria, built 1881-1891 by G. Hauberisser the Younger; height of the tower 102 m. Calvary and Calvary Church (1654-1723), large complex with chapels at the stations of the cross and Golgotha Group, church built 1668-1723, "Heilige Stiege" stairway. St. Martin Castle church at Kehlberg (built in 1642 by the Admont Benedictine); High altar (around 1740 by J. T. Stammel) with depictions of St. Martin, the Downfall of Saul, Miracle Healing by St. Eligius and life-size representations of horses, which constitute the major work of religious Baroque sculpture in Styria. Maria Elend zu Strassgang parish church with stones dating back to Roman times, Gothic Madonna of the Protective Cloak (around 1519) and remarkable tombstones from the Gothic and Renaissance periods. -
Pilgrimage church Mariatrost, built 1714-1724 by A. and J. G. Stengg; frescoes after 1737, Late Baroque interior.
Secular buildings: Landhaus (from 1494, "Knight's hall" 1527-1531), built by D. dell´Allio 1557-1565 as "Staendehaus" (house of the Estates), the main work of Renaissance architecture in Styria; beautiful courtyard with arcades; stairway and chapel (1630-1631); meeting hall of the Landtag ("Landstube", 1741). - Landeszeughaus (Armoury, 1642-1644), with approx. 29,000 weapons and armours the largest historical arsenal in the world; portal with figurative ornaments (1644). Castle (built 1438-1453 by Emperor Friedrich III); additional building erected by Maximilian I (1494-1500) with Gothic double spiral stone staircase; enlarged in the 16th century, some parts demolished in1853/1854, new buildings added in 1950-1952; in the 2nd castle yard, Styrian gallery of honour with modern busts of famous artists and scholars. Former Jesuit College (built 1572-1597, now seminary for Roman-Catholic priests), grand stairway decorated with emblems. Old University (1607-1609) with library hall (former university aula, rebuilt 1776-1778). - Palaces of noble families: Saurau-Goëss (1564-1566), Herberstein (17th /18th centuries, now New Gallery museum), Attems (1702-1709, now seat of the provincial government), Wildenstein (18th century), Koenigsacker (17th century), Meran (1841-1843), des Enffans d´Avernas (17th century). - House of the Knights of the Teutonic Order (1690/1691) with arcaded courtyard (around 1520), historical town hall (1887-1893), provincial hospital (1904-1974), provincial museum Joanneum (1665-1674, Old Gallery 1890-1894), opera (1898/1899, further additions in 1985), Schauspielhaus theatre (built in 1824/1825 by P. Nobile), altered 1960-1964). Castle Hill with clock tower (13th century fortification, restructured 1559-1569); Liebenau Castle (1853/1854, now federal boarding school); Eggenberg Castle (1625-55); Goestling Castle (1724-1728) and castle ruin (from 11th century); Karlau Palace (1584-1590, now prison).
In the historical city centre and the old suburbs several ensembles of buildings have been entirely preserved, such as the Hauptplatz, Franziskanerplatz, Freiheitsplatz (neoclassicism), Suedtiroler Platz, Minoritenplatz, Mehlplatz, Karmeliterplatz squares, "Kaelbernes Viertel" (16th century), Sporgasse, Sackstrasse, Murgasse, Schmiedgasse, Stempfergasse, Buergergasse, Burggasse streets. Numerous parks and gardens: Castle Hill, Stadtpark (1869-1872 on the Glacis), Burggarten, Rosarium, Hilmteich and Leechwald, Rosenhain, Augarten, Volksgarten, botanical garden.
Monuments: Mariensaeule (column dedicated to the Virgin Mary,1666-1670), Emperor Franz I (1841), L. Count von Welden (who laid out the Castle Hill gardens, 1859), F. Schiller (1865), W. von Tegethoff, Archduke-Johann fountain (1878), Emperor Joseph II (1887), A. Gruen (1887), M. von Franck (1899, who laid out the Stadtpark), C. Morre (1907), P. Rosegger (1936), W. A. Mozart (1936), State Treaty memorial (1955), J. Kepler (1963), J. Marx (1967/68), R. Stolz (1970), F. Nabl (1974).
Cemeteries: Zentralfriedhof (1888-1892) with crematory, Steinfeldfriedhof, Leonhardfriedhof and St. Peter-Stadtfriedhof with numerous graves of well-known personalities.
Literature#F. Popelka, Geschichte der Stadt Graz, 2 vols., 1928/1935, 1963; W. Steinboeck (ed.), Festschrift der Stadt Graz, 850 Jahre, 1978; H. Schweigert (ed.), Graz, Dehio-Handbuch - Die Kunstdenkmaeler Oe., 1979; W. Leitner and P. Cede, Graz, der urbane Lebensbereich an der Mur, 1987; Oesterreichisches Institut fuer Raumplanung, Regionalberichte 1991, Steiermark, 1991; M. Steiner, M. Gruber and W. Schmied, Der Zentralraum Graz und seine Wirtschaft, 1993.