Marchfeld Plain, Lower Austria, largest plain of Lower Austria; geologically part of the Vienna Basin; bordered to the south by the River Danube, to the east by the River March/Morava, to the north by the hilly regions of the Weinviertel (one of Lower Austria´s four main regions) and to the west by the Bisamberg Hill (alt. 385 m); approximately 45 km in length and 30 km in breadth; some 190 km2 of the Marchfeld Plain made up by water-meadows (declared a national park in 1996) provide a habitat for an extremely diverse wildlife. In the northern parts, stretches of diluvial gravel partly covered with loess. Lying between the market town of Deutsch-Wagram and the town of Marchegg, a terrace of roughly 10 m in height ( Wagram) divides the plain into the Upper Marchfeld Plain and the Lower Marchfeld Plain. Stretches of wind-borne sand alternate with pine forests, meadowlands and fertile grain and sugar beets fields. The largest Central European petroleum and gas field (extending over 120 km2 under the surface) is to be found in the northernmost part of the Marchfeld Plain near the market towns of Matzen and Auersthal. The south-western parts of the Marchfeld Plain belong to the municipality of Vienna (were integrated into the 21st district in 1904; added to the 22nd district in 1938, after a short interruption re-integrated into the 22nd district in 1954). Some time ago the Marchfeld Plain (which is also called the "granary of Austria") was in danger of becoming barren and desolate. Today the water quality is still low (quality rating 4) with sinking ground water levels and extensive agricultural exploitation having resulted in a increase in barren territory and a loss of 80% of the wetlands in recent years. While the water problem seriously inhibits overall economic growth, efforts are being made to remedy the situation by completing the Marchfeld Canal.
Many beautiful palaces are to be found in the Marchfeld Plain (especially in the southern part), the most famous of which are situated at Oberhausen bei Gross-Enzersdorf (Sachsengang Palace), Orth an der Donau, Eckartsau, Niederweiden, Schlosshof and Marchegg. The main centres of the region are the towns of Gross-Enzersdorf, Marchegg, Deutsch-Wagram and the market town of Strasshof an der Nordbahn. The Marchfeld Plain is highly important for its gas and petroleum industry, the main companies of which are a gas reprocessing and desulphurization plant at the village of Aderklaa, the main control and supply centre at the market town of Auersthal, the main branch of the gas and petroleum group OMV at the town of Gaenserndorf and another supply centre at Baumgarten an der March (called the hub of gas supply in Europe) supplying Austria, as well as other parts of Europe with natural gas imported from Russia. There is a sugar factory at the village of Leopoldsdorf. Transport links: railway networks to the north and north-west of the country (towards the Czech Republic, the operation of Eurocity-trains has recently been introduced on the railway network to the north), as well as the Marchegg Railway Link (to Slovakia), since 1962 Vienna urban service to Gaenserndorf. - Throughout history, numerous battles were fought in those stretches of the Marchfeld Plain bordering Slovakia: from 165 to 180 A.D. the Romans fought against the Quadi and the Marcomanni; King Otakar II of Bohemia won victory over King Bela of Hungary near Groissenbrunn in 1260; Otakar II was defeated by Rudolf of Habsburg in a decisive battle near Duernkrut and Jedenspeigen in 1278; in 1809 the Habsburg Empire fought against Napoleonic troops in the Battles of Aspern and Deutsch-Wagram.