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Equatorial Guinea: People & Society#

Population759,451 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic groupsFang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)
Religionsnominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Demographic profileEquatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About three-quarters of the population lives below the poverty line. Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.
Age structure0-14 years: 40.15% (male 154,896/female 150,010)
15-24 years: 19.63% (male 75,914/female 73,194)
25-54 years: 31.94% (male 120,999/female 121,587)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 14,052/female 18,583)
65 years and over: 3.98% (male 12,627/female 17,589) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 72.9%
youth dependency ratio: 67.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 20% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.6 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 20.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.48% (2016 est.)
Birth rate32.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationMALABO (capital) 145,000 (2014)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate342 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 67.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.2 years
male: 63.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.48 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.6% (2011)
Health expenditures3.8% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 72.5% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 47.9% of population
urban: 27.5% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 52.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 79.9% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 74.5% of population
urban: 20.1% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate4.88% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS27,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,100 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate16.2% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2010)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 93% (2015 est.)