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Sudan: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the black (peoples)"
Government typepresidential republic
CapitalKhartoum Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitutionprevious 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (both since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN (both since 9 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19

note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP
Democratic Unionist Party (Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI)
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP (Umar Hassan al-BASHIR)
National Umma Party or UP (Saddiq al-MAHDI)
Popular Congress Party or PCP (Kamal UMARI)
Reform Now Party or RNP (Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN)
Sudan National Front (Ali Mahmud HASANAYN)
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP (Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB)
Sudanese Congress Party (Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH)
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
Political pressure groups and leadersDarfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM (Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM), Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW (Abdel Wahid NUR, various factional leaders), Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM (Minni Arkou MINAWI)
National Consensus Front or NCF (Farouq ABU ISSA)
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N (Yasir ARMAN)
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 338-8565
FAX: (1) (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: (249) (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: (249) (183) 774-137
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
National symbol(s)secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
National anthemname: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN

note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military