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Swaziland: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
etymology: "Land of the Swazi" people; the name "Swazi" derives from 19th century King MSWATI II, under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified
Government typeabsolute monarchy
CapitalMbabane (administrative capital); Lobamba (royal and legislative capital) Mbabane (administrative capital), Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence6 September 1968 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitutionprevious 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Swaziland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage18 years of age
Executive branchchief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Themba Nhlanganiso MASUKU (since 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among elected members of the House of Assembly
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 10 members appointed by the monarch; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held on 20 September 2013 (next scheduled for September 2018)
election results: House of Assembly - no results of the election were released; note - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Judicial branchhighest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 4 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices
subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)

note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary
Political parties and leadersthe status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution; the following are considered political associations:
African United Democratic Party or AUDP (Stanley MAUNDZISA)
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC (Alvit DLAMINI)
People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO (Mario MASUKU)
Swaziland Democratic Party ro SWADEPA (Jan SITHOLE)
Political pressure groups and leadersSwaziland Democracy Campaign
Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Abednigo Mandla NTSHANGASE (since 19 July 2010)
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (1) (202) 234-5002
FAX: (1) (202) 234-8254
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lisa PETERSON (since January 2016)
embassy: corner of MR 103 and Cultural Center Drive, Ezulwini
mailing address: P.O. Box D202, The Gables, H106
telephone: (268) 2417-9000
FAX: (268) 2416-3344
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally; blue stands for peace and stability, red represents past struggles, and yellow the mineral resources of the country; the shield, spears, and staff symbolize protection from the country's enemies, while the black and white of the shield are meant to portray black and white people living in peaceful coexistence
National symbol(s)lion, elephant; national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthemname: "Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT

note: adopted 1968; uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles