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Brazil: People & Society#

Population202,656,788 (July 2014 est.)
Population growth rate0.8% (2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.8% (male 24,534,129/female 23,606,332)
15-24 years: 16.5% (male 16,993,708/female 16,521,057)
25-54 years: 43.7% (male 43,910,790/female 44,674,915)
55-64 years: 7.6% (male 8,067,022/female 9,036,519)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 6,507,069/female 8,805,247) (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Birth rate14.72 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate6.54 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Ethnic groupswhite 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.28 years
male: 69.73 years
female: 77 years (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 90.1%
female: 90.7% (2010 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Net migration rate-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate1.79 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
Median agetotal: 30.7 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 31.5 years (2014 est.)
Education expenditures5.8% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 87% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 84.5% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 15.5% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 48.4% of population
total: 80.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 51.6% of population
total: 19.2% of population (2011 est.)
Major urban areas - populationSao Paulo 19.96 million; Rio de Janeiro 11.836 million; Belo Horizonte 5.736 million; Porto Alegre 4.034 million; BRASILIA (capital) 3.813 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate56 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.2% (2007)
Health expenditures8.9% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density1.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density2.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate18.8% (2008)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15.4%
male: 12.2%
female: 19.8% (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 959,942
percentage: 3 %
note: data represents children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
Demographic profileBrazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, but limited social spending on children has restricted investment in education - a primary means of escaping poverty. Brazil's poverty and income inequality levels remain high despite improvements in the 2000s and continue to disproportionately affect the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.3% (2006)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 46.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 35.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 11 %
potential support ratio: 9.1 (2013)