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Uruguay: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
etymology: the Guarani Indians named the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
Government typepresidential republic
CapitalMontevideo Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 26 October 2014, with a runoff election on 30 November 2014 (next to be held on 27 October 2019, and a runoff if needed on 24 November 2019)
election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 15, Blanco 10, Colorado Party 4, Independent Party 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 50, Blanco 32, Colorado Party 13, Independent Party 3, Popular Assembly 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with reelection after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzagados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzagados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leadersBroad Front (Frente Amplio) or EP-FA (Monica XAVIER) (a broad governing coalition that includes Liber Seregni Front (FLS) (Danilo ASTORI), Socialist Party (Monica XAVIER), Vertiente Artiguiste (Enrique RUBIO), Christian Democratic Party (Juan Andres ROBALLO), Popular Participation Movement (MPP) (Jose MUJICA), Broad Front Commitment (Raul SENDIC), Action and Thought Current-Freedom (CAP-L) (Eleuterio FERNADEZ HUIDOBRO), Big House (Constanza MOREIRA), Communist Party (Marcos CARAMBULA), The Federal League
Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (Pedro Bordaberry) and Propuesta Batllista (Jorge AMORIN BATLLE))
Independent Party (Pablo MIERES)
National Party or Blanco (including All Forward (Luis LACALLE POU) and National Alliance (Jorge LARRANAGA))
Popular Assembly (Gonzalo ABELLA)
Political pressure groups and leadersB'nai Brith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Womenother: students
International organization participationCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois (since 23 July 2015)
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: (1) (202) 331-1313
FAX: (1) (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brad FREDEN (since 10 December 2014)
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: (598) (2) 1770-2000
FAX: (598) (2) 1770-2128
Flag descriptionnine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag
National symbol(s)Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
National anthemname: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung