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Bhutan: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan
local long form: Druk Gyalkhap
local short form: Druk Yul
etymology: named after the Bhotia, the ethnic Tibetans who migrated from Tibet to Bhutan; Bod is the Tibetan name for their land; the Bhutanese name "Druk Yul" means "Land of the Thunder Dragon"
Government typeconstitutional monarchy
CapitalThimphu Thimphu
geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 38 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Gasa, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Tashi Yangtse, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king)
National holidayNational Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Constitutionprevious governing documents were various royal decrees; first constitution drafted November 2001 - March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008; amended 2011 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law based on Buddhist religious law
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son
head of government: Prime Minister Tshering TOBGAY (since July 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-third vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Chi Tshog consists of the non-partisan National Council or Gyelyong Tshogde (25 seats; 20 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 members appointed by the king; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Tshogdu (47 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council election last held on 23 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly election first round held on 31 May 2013 and second round on 13 July 2013
election results: National Council - seats by party - independent 20 (all candidates required to run as independents; National Assembly - first round - percent of vote by party - DPT 44.5%; PDP 32.5%; DNT 17.0%; DCT 5.9%; second round - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.9%, DPT 45.1%; seats by party - PDP 32, DPT 15
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court has sole jurisdiction in constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the National Judicial Commission, a 4-member body to include the Legislative Committee of the National Assembly, the attorney general, the Chief Justice of Bhutan and the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; other judges (drangpons) appointed by the monarch from among the High Court judges selected by the National Judicial Commission; chief justice serves a 5-year term or until reaching age 65 years, whichever is earlier; the 4 other judges serve 10-year terms or until age 65, whichever is earlier
subordinate courts: High Court (first appellate court); District or Dzongkhag Courts; sub-district or Dungkhag Courts
Political parties and leadersBhutan Kuen-Nyam Party or BKP (Sonam TOBGAY)
Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT (Pema GYAMTSHO)
Druck Chirwang Tshogpa or DCT
Druk Nymrub Tshogpa or DNT
People's Democratic Party or PDP (Tshering TOBGAY)
Political pressure groups and leadersDruk National Congress (exiled)
United Front for Democracy (exiled)other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled)
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USnone; note - the Permanent Mission to the UN for Bhutan has consular jurisdiction in the US; the permanent representative to the UN is Kunzang C. NAMGYEL (since February 2014); address: 343 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone (1) (212) 682-2268; FAX (1) (212) 661-0551consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although frequent informal contact is maintained via the US embassy in New Delhi (India) and Bhutan's Permanent Mission to the UN
Flag descriptiondivided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side; the dragon, called the Druk (Thunder Dragon), is the emblem of the nation; its white color stands for purity and the jewels in its claws symbolize wealth; the background colors represent spiritual and secular powers within Bhutan: the orange is associated with Buddhism, while the yellow denotes the ruling dynasty
National symbol(s)thunder dragon known as Druk Gyalpo; national colors: orange, yellow
National anthemname: "Druk tsendhen" (The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)
lyrics/music: Gyaldun Dasho Thinley DORJI/Aku TONGMI

note: adopted 1953