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Burma: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Union of Myanmar
note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma and the current parliamentary government have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government has not adopted the name
CapitalRangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital Rangoon (Yangon), note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital
geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E
time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)
regions: Ayeyawady (Irrawaddy), Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon
states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine (Arakan), Shan
union territory: Nay Pyi Taw
Constitutionprevious 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest approved by referendum 29 May 2008; reformed 2011 (2011)
Executive branchchief of state: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011); Vice President SAI MAUK KHAM (since 3 February 2011); Vice President NYAN TUN (since 15 August 2012)
head of government: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011)
cabinet: cabinet is appointed by the president and confirmed by the parliament
elections: THEIN SEIN elected president by the parliament from among three vice presidents; the upper house, the lower house, and military members of the parliament each nominate one vice president (president serves a five-year term)
Flag descriptiondesign consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation
Independence4 January 1948 (from the UK)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of the Union (consists of the chief justice and 7-11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges nominated by the president, with approval of the Pythu Hlattaw, and appointed by the president; judges normally serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of the Region; High Courts of the State; Court of the Self-Administered Division; Court of the Self-Administered Zone; district and township courts; special courts (for juvenile, municipal, and traffic offenses); courts martial
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law
Legislative branchbicameral, consists of the House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw) (224 seats, 168 directly elected and 56 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (Pythu Hluttaw) (440 seats, 330 directly elected and 110 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 November 2010 (next to be held in December 2015)
election results: House of Nationalities - percent of vote by party - USDP 74.8%, other (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 25.2%; seats by party - USDP 129, other 39; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - USDP 79.6%, other (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 20.4%; seats by party - USDP 259, other 71
International organization participationADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)
Political pressure groups and leadersThai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates)
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ("Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN) consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile)
National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)
United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)
Inside Burma: Karen National Union or KNU
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP
United Wa State Army or UWSA
88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement)
several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; political groups, other than parties approved by the government, are limited in number
Political parties and leadersAll Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP (NAING NGWE THEIN)
National Democratic Force or NDF (KHIN MAUNG SWE, Dr.THAN NYEIN)
National League for Democracy or NLD (AUNG SAN SUU KYI)
National Unity Party or NUP (TUN YE)
Rakhine Nationalities Development Party or RNDP (Dr. AYE MG)
Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP (SAI AIKE PAUNG)
Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD (HKUN HTUN OO)
Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP (SHWE MANN, HTAY OO)
numerous smaller parties
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typeparliamentary government took power in March 2011
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador KYAW MYO HTUT (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 332-3344
FAX: (1) (202) 332-4351
consulate(s) general: none; Burma has a Mission to the UN in New York
National anthemname: "Kaba Ma Kyei" (Till the End of the World, Myanmar)
lyrics/music: SAYA TIN
note: adopted 1948; Burma is among a handful of non-European nations that have anthems rooted in indigenous traditions; the beginning portion of the anthem is a traditional Burmese anthem before transitioning into a Western-style orchestrated work
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)chinthe (mythical lion)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Derek J. MITCHELL (since 11 July 2012)
embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon
mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: (95) (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038
FAX: (95) (1) 511-069