unbekannter Gast

Kazakhstan: Economy#

Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of Kazakhstan's growth, although the country is aggressively pursuing diversification strategies. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbors to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies, but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan's economy, it has rebounded well, helped by prudent government measures. Rising commodity prices have helped the recovery. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called "Dutch disease." In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$243.6 billion (2013 est.)
$231.9 billion (2012 est.)
$220.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2013 est.)
5.1% (2012 est.)
7.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,100 (2013 est.)
$13,700 (2012 est.)
$13,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 5.2%
industry: 37.9%
services: 56.9% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line5.3% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23.7% (2011 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.8%
industry: 11.9%
services: 62.3% (2012)
Exports - commoditiesoil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
Exports - partnersChina 19.3%, Italy 18.1%, Netherlands 8.8%, France 6.6%, Switzerland 5.8%, Austria 5.8% (2012)
Agriculture - productsgrain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
Budgetrevenues: $43.88 billion
expenditures: $49 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 28%, Ukraine 10.9%, Germany 8.5%, US 7.9% (2012)
Exchange ratestenge (KZT) per US dollar -
151.8 (2013 est.)
149.11 (2012 est.)
147.36 (2010 est.)
147.5 (2009)
120.25 (2008)
Exports$87.23 billion (2013 est.)
$86.93 billion (2012 est.)
Debt - external$131.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$133.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Imports$52.03 billion (2013 est.)
$49.08 billion (2012 est.)
Industrial production growth rate2.1% (2013 est.)
Industriesoil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.8% (2013 est.)
5.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force9.022 million (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate5.3% (2013 est.)
5.3% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.9 (2011)
31.5 (2003)
Public debt15.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Current account balance$1.965 billion (2013 est.)
$640.5 million (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$29.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$28.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$224.9 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$123.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$111.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$26.53 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$25.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$23.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$43.3 billion (31 December 2011)
$60.74 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
7.5% (31 December 2011 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rateNA% (31 December 2013 est.)
6.6% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$87.05 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$83.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$24.51 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$25.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$70.36 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$65.71 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 51%
government consumption: 12.4%
investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 44.6%
imports of goods and services: -32.6%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving28.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
23.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
28.4% of GDP (2011 est.)