unbekannter Gast

Tajikistan: Economy#

Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. The 1992-1997 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Until 2008, cotton production was closely monitored and controlled by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had directed the AgroInvestBank to improperly lend money to politically connected investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its stand-by assistance program in Tajikistan. As part of the Tajik government’s subsequent reforms, over a half billion dollars in farmer debt has been forgiven. In 2008 Tajikistan passed new law authorizing farmers to decide for themselves what crops to grow, and this has resulted in a gradual decrease in cotton output. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food, most of which comes by rail. Uzbekistan closed one of the rail lines into Tajikistan in late 2011, hampering the transit of goods to and from the southern part of the country. As a result, food and fuel prices increased to the highest levels since 2002. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating below 25% of capacity. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda-1 hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2 hydropower dam, built with Iranian investment, began operating in 2012 at a limited capacity. The Tajik government is tens of millions of dollars in arrears for both Sangtuda dams, and Sangtuda-2 has been closed for “maintenance” since January 2014. The government is pinning its drive for energy independence on completion of the Roghun dam, which is scheduled for mid-2014. In 2010, the government began a coerced sale of shares in the Roghun enterprise to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million before stopping under intense criticism from international donors, but the dam is likely to cost billions of dollars. The World Bank funded two feasibility studies (technical-economic, and social-environmental) for the dam. If built according to plan, Roghun will be the tallest dam in the world, will operate year around, and will significantly expand Tajikistan’s electricity output. In 2013, the Tajik government finalized an agreement to import one million tons of fuel and oil products from Russia each year, at reduced prices. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and its large external debt burden.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$19.2 billion (2013 est.)
$17.88 billion (2012 est.)
$16.63 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.4% (2013 est.)
7.5% (2012 est.)
7.4% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,300 (2013 est.)
$2,200 (2012 est.)
$2,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 21.1%
industry: 23.2%
services: 55.7% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line35.6% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 46.5%
industry: 10.7%
services: 42.8% (2013 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partnersTurkey 40.7%, Russia 10.6%, Iran 9.9%, Afghanistan 8.7%, China 7.4%, Kazakhstan 7.4%, Switzerland 6.6% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Budgetrevenues: $2.425 billion
expenditures: $2.423 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersRussia 22%, Kazakhstan 15.2%, China 14.5%, Lithuania 4.7%, Kyrgyzstan 4.4%, Turkey 4.4%, Iran 4.3% (2012 est.)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
4.76 (2013 est.)
4.76 (2012 est.)
4.379 (2010 est.)
4.1428 (2009)
3.4563 (2008)
Exports$1.163 billion (2013 est.)
$826.6 million (2012 est.)
Debt - external$2.162 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.439 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Imports$4.121 billion (2013 est.)
$3.778 billion (2012 est.)
Industrial production growth rate3.9% (2013 est.)
Industriesaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2013 est.)
5.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force2.209 million (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate2.5% (2013 est.)
2.5% (2012 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
Public debt6.5% of GDP
Current account balance-$330 million (2013 est.)
-$246.2 million (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.072 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$972 million (31 December 2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$8.513 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA (31 December 2010 est.)
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
Central bank discount rate4.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate22% (31 December 2013 est.)
17.13% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.611 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.196 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.044 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.033 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.555 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues28.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 97%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 14%
investment in inventories: 6.7%
exports of goods and services: 13.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.5%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving12.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
17.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
10% of GDP (2011 est.)