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Turkey: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
CapitalAnkara Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010 (2010)
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president upon the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL elected president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam; according to legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
Independence29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals organized into 15 divisions with 38 civil and criminal chambers and consisting of 250 high judges and 440 rapporteur judges)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president from among candidates submitted by plenary assemblies of other courts, the Higher Education Council, senior government administrators, and lawyers; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms and with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Legal systemcivil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
Legislative branchunicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 June 2011 (next likely to be held by June 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.8%, CHP 25.9%, MHP 13%, independents 6.6%, other 4.7%; seats by party - AKP 326, CHP 135, MHP 53, independents 36; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON (Rizanur MERAL)
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK (Lami OZGEN)
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK (Tayfun GORGUN)
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD (Omer Cihad VARDAN)
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is (Mahmut ARSLAN)
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK (Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK)
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is (Mustafa KUMLU)
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK (Bendevi PALANDOKEN)
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD (Muharrem YILMAZ)
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB (M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU)
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Left Party or DSP (Masum TURKER)
Democratic Party or DP (Gultekin UYSAL)
Felicity Party or SP (Mustafa KAMALAK) (sometimes translated as Contentment Party)
Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP (Alper TAS)
Grand Unity Party or BBP (Mustafa DESTICI)
Independent Turkey Party or BTP (Haydar BAS)
Justice and Development Party or AKP (Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN)
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP (Devlet BAHCELI)
Peace and Democracy Party or BDP (Selahattin DEMIRTAS)
People's Democracy Party or HDP (Sebahat TUNCEL)
Republican People's Party or CHP (Kemal KILICDAROGLU)
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typerepublican parliamentary democracy
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sedar KILIC (since 21 May 1014)
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 612-6700
FAX: (1) (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, Newton (MA)
National anthemname: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr. (since 3 January 2011)
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: (90) (312) 455-5555
FAX: (90) (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir