According to the World Factbook, 70–75 percent of the population are ethnic Turks, while the Kurds are the largest minority at 18%.
The vast majority of the population is Sunni Muslim, with Alevis making up the largest religious minority.
The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
- Turkey has largest boundary with Syria which is approximately 822 km.
- Turkey has shortest boundary with Azerbaijan which is approximately 9 km.
- The largest river in Turkey is Euphrates which is 2800 km.
- The largest export partner of Turkey is Germany.
- The largest import partner of Turkey is Russia.
- There are 98 seaports in Turkey.
Tourist Attraction#Performing a Sufi ritual dance, whirling dervishes spin in southwestern Turkey.
- The national bird of Turkey is Redwing.
- Tulip is the national flower of Turkey
- The famous dances of Turkey are Zeybek, Halay and Horon.
- The famous dishes of Turkey are Döner kebab and Kuru fasulye with pilav.