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Romania: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
CapitalBucharest Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2014)
Executive branchchief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived two national recall referendums
head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Daniel CONSTANTIN, Hunor KELEMAN, Gabriel OPREA (since 5 March 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
Independence9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges and organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Legal systemcivil law system
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National holidayUnification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various human rights and professional associations
Political parties and leadersChristian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD (Aurelian PAVELESCU)
Civic Force or FC (Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU)
Conservative Party or PC (Daniel CONSTANTIN) (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
Democratic Liberal Party or PDL (Vasile BLAGA) (formerly Democratic Party)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR (Hunor KELEMEN)
National Liberal Party or PNL (Crin ANTONESCU)
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR (Gabriel OPREA)
New Republic Party or NR (Mihai NEAMTU)
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD (Dan DIACONESCU)
Popular Movement Party or PMP (Eugene TOMAC)
Social Democratic Party or PSD (Victor-Viorel PONTA) (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Iulian BUGA (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: (1) (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
National anthemname: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER (since 14 December 2012)
embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: (40) (21) 200-3300
FAX: (40) (21) 200-3442