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San Marino: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, the traditional founder of the country
Government typeparliamentary republic
CapitalSan Marino (city) San Marino (city)
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence3 September 301 (traditional founding date)
National holidayFounding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
Constitutionhistory: consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974
amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with Italian civil law influences
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Marino RICCARDI and Captain Regent Fabio BERARDI (for the period 1 October 2016 - 1 April 2017)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council
elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in September 2016 (next to be held in March 2017); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
election results: Marino RICCARDI (PSD) and Fabio BERARDI (PDCS) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the directly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects 2 of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a 6-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 9 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 9 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 November 2016 (next to be held by November 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino First 39.4% (including PDCS 24.5%, PS 7.7%, PSD 7.2%), Adesso, sm 31.0% (including Democratic Socialist Left 12.1%, Repubblica Futura 9.6%, Civic 10 9.3%), Democracy in Action 22.8% (including RETE Movement 18.3%, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 4.5%); seats by party - San Marino First 25 (PDCS 16, PS 5, PSD 4), Adesso, sm 20 (Democratic Socialist Left 8, Repubblica Futura 6, Civic 10 6), Democracy in Action 15 (including RETE Movement 12, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 3)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
Political parties and leadersSan Marino Common Good (includes Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS (Marco GATTI), We Sammarinese or NS (Marco ARZILLI), Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD (Paride ANDREOLI), Popular Alliance or AP (Gabriele GATTI))
Entente for the Country (Intesa per il Paese; includes Socialist Party or PS (Alessandro BEVITORI), Union for the Republic or UPR (Marco PODESCHI)
Active Citizenship (includes Civic 10 (Mateo CIACCI), United Left or SU (Gastone PASOLINI))
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationCE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI (since 16 July 2007)
chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: 202-250-1535
FAX: 202-223-2748
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
National symbol(s)three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue
National anthemname: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece