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Serbia: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
CapitalBelgrade (Beograd) Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*

note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the autonomous province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
Independence5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holidayNational Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Constitutionhistory: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 11 June 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC (since 27 April 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president; percent of vote in second round - Tomislav NIKOLIC (SNS) 51.2%, Boris TADIC (NDS-Z) 48.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts

note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Political parties and leadersAlliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM (Istvan PASZTOR)
Communist Party or KP (Josip Joska BROZ)
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina (Petar KUNTIC)
Democratic Party or DS (Dragan SUTANOVAC)
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS (Milos Jovanovic)
Dveri (Bosko OBRADOVIC)
Enough of Enough (Sasa RADULOVIC)
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS (Ivan KARIC)
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV (Nenad CANAK)
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP (Cedomir JOVANOVIC)
Movement of Socialists or PS (Aleksandar VULIN)
New Serbia or NS (Velimir ILIC)
Party for Democratic Action or PDD (Riza HALIMI)
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA (Sulejman UGLJANIN)
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS (Milan KRKOBABIC)
Reformist Party or RS (Aleksandar VISNJIC)
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP (Nenad POPOVIC)
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS (Aleksandar VUCIC)
Serbian Radical Party or SRS (Vojislav SESELJ)
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO (Vuk DRASKOVIC)
Social Democratic Party or SDS (Boris TADIC)
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS (Rasim LJAJIC)
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS (Ivica DACIC)
Strength of Serbia or PSS (Bogoljub KARIC)
Together for Serbia or ZZS (Dusan PETROVIC)
Together for Sumadija (Veroljub STEVANOVIC)
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Political pressure groups and leadersIndependent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
International organization participationBIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
telephone: (1) (202) 332-0333
FAX: (1) (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: (381) (11) 706-4000
FAX: (381) (11) 706-4005
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National symbol(s)double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
National anthemname: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries