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United Kingdom: Culture#

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Nobel Prize Winners (100)#

Here persons are counted for the country they born in or if their affiliation is with this country.
NameCategoryYearMotivation
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)Physics1904"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)Peace1937
Edgar Douglas AdrianMedicine1932"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)Peace1933
Sir Edward Victor AppletonPhysics1947"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
Francis William AstonChemistry1922"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"
Charles Glover BarklaPhysics1917"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"
Derek H. R. BartonChemistry1969"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"
Sir James W. BlackMedicine1988"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
Patrick Maynard Stuart BlackettPhysics1948"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
Lord (John) Boyd Orr of BrechinPeace1949
Sir William Henry BraggPhysics1915"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"
Herbert C. BrownChemistry1979"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"
James ChadwickPhysics1935"for the discovery of the neutron"
Sir Austen ChamberlainPeace1925
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer ChurchillLiterature1953"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"
Ronald H. CoaseEconomics1991"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"
Sir John Douglas CockcroftPhysics1951"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
Mairead CorriganPeace1976
William Randal CremerPeace1903
Francis Harry Compton CrickMedicine1962"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
Sir Henry Hallett DaleMedicine1936"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
Christian de DuveMedicine1974"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
Angus DeatonEconomics2015"for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare"
Paul Adrien Maurice DiracPhysics1933"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
Robert G. EdwardsMedicine2010"for the development of in vitro fertilization"
Sir Martin J. EvansMedicine2007"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
Sir Alexander FlemingMedicine1945"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
John GalsworthyLiterature1932"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"
William GoldingLiterature1983"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"
Clive W.J. GrangerEconomics2003"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"
Sir John B. GurdonMedicine2012"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
F. Duncan M. HaldanePhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
Arthur HardenChemistry1929"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
Oliver HartEconomics2016"for their contributions to contract theory"
Walter Norman HaworthChemistry1937"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
Seamus HeaneyLiterature1995"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"
Arthur HendersonPeace1934
Richard HendersonChemistry2017"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"
Antony HewishPhysics1974"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
John R. HicksEconomics1972"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"
Peter W. HiggsPhysics2013"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
Archibald Vivian HillMedicine1922"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
Sir Cyril Norman HinshelwoodChemistry1956"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
Alan Lloyd HodgkinMedicine1963"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
Sir Frederick Gowland HopkinsMedicine1929"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
Godfrey N. HounsfieldMedicine1979"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
John HumePeace1998"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
Tim HuntMedicine2001"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
Andrew Fielding HuxleyMedicine1963"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
Niels K. JerneMedicine1984"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
Brian David JosephsonPhysics1973"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"
John Cowdery KendrewChemistry1962"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
J. Michael KosterlitzPhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
Sir Harold W. KrotoChemistry1996"for their discovery of fullerenes"
Anthony J. LeggettPhysics2003"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
Tomas LindahlChemistry2015"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"
John James Rickard MacleodMedicine1923"for the discovery of insulin"
Sir Peter MansfieldMedicine2003"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
Archer John Porter MartinChemistry1952"for their invention of partition chromatography"
James E. MeadeEconomics1977"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"
James A. MirrleesEconomics1996"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"
Peter D. MitchellChemistry1978"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"
Sir Nevill Francis MottPhysics1977"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Philip J. Noel-BakerPeace1959
Ronald George Wreyford NorrishChemistry1967"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"
Sir Paul M. NurseMedicine2001"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
Harold PinterLiterature2005"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"
John A. PopleChemistry1998"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
George PorterChemistry1967"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"
Rodney R. PorterMedicine1972"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
Cecil Frank PowellPhysics1950"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
Sir William RamsayChemistry1904"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"
Owen Willans RichardsonPhysics1928"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
Richard J. RobertsMedicine1993"for their discoveries of split genes"
Sir Robert RobinsonChemistry1947"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) RussellLiterature1950"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"
Sir Martin RylePhysics1974"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Frederick SangerChemistry1980"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
Sir Charles Scott SherringtonMedicine1932"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
William Bradford ShockleyPhysics1956"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
Michael SmithChemistry1993"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
Oliver SmithiesMedicine2007"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
Frederick SoddyChemistry1921"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"
Sir J. Fraser StoddartChemistry2016"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"
Richard StoneEconomics1984"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"
John E. SulstonMedicine2002"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
Richard Laurence Millington SyngeChemistry1952"for their invention of partition chromatography"
Jack W. SzostakMedicine2009"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
Joseph John ThomsonPhysics1906"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
George Paget ThomsonPhysics1937"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
David J. ThoulessPhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
Lord (Alexander R.) ToddChemistry1957"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
David TrimblePeace1998"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
John R. VaneMedicine1982"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
John E. WalkerChemistry1997"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"
Patrick WhiteLiterature1973"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"
Geoffrey WilkinsonChemistry1973"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"
Betty WilliamsPeace1976
Charles Thomson Rees WilsonPhysics1927"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

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