unbekannter Gast

Kosovo: Economy#

Kosovo's economy has shown progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Nordic countries - are estimated to account for about 15% of GDP and international donor assistance accounts for approximately 10% of GDP. With international assistance, Kosovo has been able to privatize a majority of its state-owned enterprises.

Kosovo's citizens are the poorest in Europe with a per capita GDP (PPP) of $8,000 in 2014. An unemployment rate of 31%, and a youth unemployment rate near 60%, in a country where the average age is 26, encourages emigration and fuels a significant informal, unreported economy. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and a lack of technical expertise. Kosovo enjoys lower labor costs than the rest of the region. However, high levels of corruption, little contract enforcement, and unreliable electricity supply have discouraged potential investors.

Minerals and metals production - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once the backbone of industry, has declined because of ageing equipment and insufficient investment. A limited and unreliable electricity supply is a major impediment to economic development, but Kosovo has received technical assistance to help improve the sector’s performance. In 2012, Kosovo privatized its electricity supply and distribution network. The US Government is cooperating with the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) and the World Bank to conclude a commercial tender for the construction of a new power plant, Kosovo C. MED also has plans for the rehabilitation of an older coal power plant, Kosovo B, and the development of a coal mine that could supply both plants.

In June 2009, Kosovo joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, and began servicing its share of the former Yugoslavia's debt. In order to help integrate Kosovo into regional economic structures, UNMIK signed (on behalf of Kosovo) its accession to the Central Europe Free Trade Area (CEFTA) in 2006. Serbia and Bosnia previously had refused to recognize Kosovo's customs stamp or extend reduced tariff privileges for Kosovo products under CEFTA, but both countries resumed trade with Kosovo in 2011. Kosovo joined the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2012 and the Council of Europe Development Bank in 2013. In 2014, Kosovo concluded the Stabilization and Association Agreement negotiations (SAA) with the EU, focused on trade liberalization, and signed it into law in 2015. In 2015, Kosovo negotiated a $185 million Stand-by Arrangement (SBA) with the IMF following the conclusion of its previous SBA in 2014. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro, but the Serbian dinar is also used illegally in Serb majority communities. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low.

Kosovo experienced its first federal budget deficit in 2012, when government expenditures climbed sharply. In May 2014, the government introduced a 25% salary increase for public sector employees and an equal increase in certain social benefits. Central revenues could not sustain these increases, and the government was forced to reduce its planned capital investments. The government, led by Prime Minister MUSTAFA - a trained economist - recently made several changes to its fiscal policy, expanding the list of duty-free imports, decreasing the Value Added Tax (VAT) for basic food items and public utilities, and increasing the VAT for all other goods. In August 2015, as part of its EU-facilitated normalization process with Serbia, Kosovo signed agreements on telecommunications and energy distribution, but disagreements over who owns economic assets within Kosovo continue.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$18.49 billion (2016 est.)
$17.77 billion (2015 est.)
$17.09 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$6.56 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate4.1% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
1.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$10,000 (2016 est.)
$9,500 (2015 est.)
$9,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 US dollars
Gross national saving12.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 90.5%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 28.2%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 5.8%
imports of goods and services: -43.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 12.9%
industry: 22.6%
services: 64.5% (2009 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish
Industriesmineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles
Labor force483,200
note: includes those estimated to be employed in the grey economy (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 5.9%
industry: 16.8%
services: 77.3% (2013)
Unemployment rate35.3% (2014 est.)
30.9% (2013 est.)
note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
Population below poverty line30% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30 (FY05/06)
Budgetrevenues: $1.396 billion
expenditures: $1.61 billion (2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
Public debt10.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.8% (30 June 2013 est.)
13.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.511 billion (2014 est.)
$2.773 billion (2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.02 billion (2014 est.)
$2.505 billion (2013 est.)
Current account balance-$629 million (2016 est.)
-$560 million (2015 est.)
Exports$349 million (2014 est.)
$408 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmining and processed metal products, scrap metals, leather products, machinery, appliances, prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco, vegetable products, textiles and apparel
Exports - partnersItaly 25.8%, Albania 14.6%, Macedonia 9.6%, China 5.5%, Germany 5.4%, Switzerland 5.4%, Turkey 4.1% (2012 est.)
Imports$2.687 billion (2014 est.)
$3.398 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, livestock, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery, minerals, textiles, stone, ceramic and glass products, electrical equipment
Imports - partnersGermany 11.9%, Macedonia 11.5%, Serbia 11.1%, Italy 8.5%, Turkey 9%, China 6.4%, Albania 4.4% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$NA
Debt - external$411.6 million (2014 est.)
$448.2 million (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$21.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.67 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)