Bibliography: While initially this term denoted the study of books, it currently means the systematic listing of books and articles. A difference is made between complete and serial bibliographies as well as between general and specialist bibliographies. In Austria, the first bibliographies were compiled at the end of the 18th century: Vogel-Gruber, Specimen Bibliothecae Germaniae Austriacae, ed. by J. Wendt von Wendtenthal, 2 vols., 1856; C. Wurzbach, Bibliograph. Uebersicht der Literatur des oesterreichischen Kaiserstaates, 4 vols., 1856/1957; F. Andriessen, Oesterreich-Catalog, 11 vols., 1861-1871; C. Junker, A. I. Jelinek (eds.), Oesterreich-Bibliographie, 3 vols., 1899-1901; F. Krones, Grundriss der oesterreichischen Geschichte mit besonderer Ruecksicht auf Quellen- and Literaturkunde, 1882. Since 1946, the Austrian National Library has been publishing its bi-monthly "Oesterreichische Bibliographie". A number of regional general bibliographies are published in several provinces, usually in electronic form. Many scholarly subjects have their own specialist bibliographies. History, for example, is covered by the "Oesterreichische Historische Bibliographie" (an annual bibliography, since 1965); "Gesamtverzeichnis oesterreichischer Dissertationen" 1966-1984.