Peace Movement: The novel "Die Waffen nieder!" ("Lay Down Your Arms!") by Bertha v. Suttner, published in 1889, initiated the peace movement in Austria. In 1890 Suttner founded the "Austrian Peace Society " ("Oesterreichische Gesellschaft der Friedensfreunde"), "Austrian Society of the Friends of Peace; "Suttner Society" since 1964), which other associations joined in subsequent years. In addition to Suttner A. Fried figured prominently in the Austrian and European peace movement. During World War I members of the peace association "Para Pacem" (e.g. H. Lammasch, K. Dumba, J. Ude, J. Meinl and R. Mayreder) were staunch supporters of peace, although the association had been banned. After 1918 numerous new pacifist organisations were founded (Gesellschaft fuer Friedenserziehung - Society for Peace, Internationale Frauenliga fuer Frieden und Freiheit - International Women's League for Peace and Freedom, Internationaler Bund katholischer Esperantisten - International League of Catholic Esperantists, Katholischer Weltfriedensbund vom weissen Kreuz - Catholic League for World Peace of the White Cross, Oesterreichische Voelkerbundliga - Austrian League of Nations Association); the Catholic organisations joined together under the name "Katholische Internationale" - Catholic-International". After the death of Fried R. Goldscheid became president of the reestablished Peace Society (1923-1931), followed by the Social Democrat B. Schoenfeld; in 1936 the Society was dissolved. The Pan-Europe movement founded in 1923 by R. Coudenhove-Kalergi in Vienna adopted peace propaganda in its platform. In 1938 the National Socialists dissolved all associations for peace. During World War II there were peace efforts within the Austrian Resistance Movement. In 1946 the "Oesterreichische Friedensgesellschaft" ("Austrian Society for Peace") was reestablished, and in 1949 the "oesterreichischer Friedensrat" ("Austrian Peace Council") was founded. Since 1973 the "Institut fuer Friedensforschung" ("University Centre for Peace Reseach") has existed at the University of Vienna. Further scientific institutes for peace research such as the "Oesterreichisches Studienzentrum fuer Frieden und Konfliktloesung" ("Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution") in Stadtschlaining (Burgenland) and the "Europaeisches Universitaetszentrum fuer Friedensstudien" ("European University Centre for Peace Studies") have also been established. In addition to "Koordinationsausschuss der oesterreichischen Friedensbewegung" ("Co-ordination Committee of the Austrian Peace Movement"), of which organisations such as the Oesterreichische Hochschuelerschaft (Austrian Students' Association) and the Oesterreichischer Bundesjugendring (Austrian Youth Association) are members, there are other independent peace initiatives (e.g. the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Wehrdienstverweigerung und Gewaltfreiheit - Association for Conscientious Objectors, SOS Mitmensch). The peace demonstration in Vienna on May 15, 1982 represented one of the highlights of the Austrian peace movement.
Literature#M. Rauchensteiner (ed.), Ueberlegungen zum Frieden, 1987.