b. Vienna, Sept. 4, 1869, d. Vienna, Feb. 3, 1950, teacher (dismissed in 1897) and politician (Social Democrats, SDAP and Austrian Social Democratic Party, SPOe). From 1897 in the Lower Austrian provincial parliament; 1901-1918 member of the Reichsrat, 1918-1919 one of the three presidents of the Provisional National Assembly and 1919-1920 first president of the Constituent National Assembly (thus 1918-1920 head of state of the Republic); 1920-1934 member of the Nationalrat. After the death of V. Adler 1918-1919 provisional party leader of the SDAP, 1919-1934 party chairman; 1923-1934 mayor and provincial governor of Vienna. Imprisoned in 1934, interned in a concentration camp in 1944/1945. After 1945 honorary president of the SPOe and 1945-1950 member of the Nationalrat. The community programme characteristic of Socialist Vienna (residential schemes, schools, social measures) was set up during S.'s term as a mayor.
Publications#Volksschule oder Pfaffenschule?, 1902; Arbeiter oder Soldaten?, 1917; Die Schmach von Genf und die Republik, 1922.
Literature#F. Weissensteiner and E. Weinzierl (eds.), Die oesterreichischen Bundespraesidenten, 1983; R. Spitzer, K. S. Waisenknabe, Staatspraesident, Buergermeister, 1994.