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Chad: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages
Government typepresidential republic
CapitalN'Djamena N
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence11 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil and customary law
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (MPS) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held on 30 September 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART (includes MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP)
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR (Ngarledjy YORONGAR)
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP (Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE)
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR (Saleh KEBZABO)
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD (Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE)
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS (Idriss DEBY)
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP (Lol Mahamat CHOUA)
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD (Sande NGARYIMBE)
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 652-1312
FAX: (1) (202) 758-0431
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: (235) 2251-70-09
FAX: (235) 2251-56-54
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
National symbol(s)goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthemname: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

note: adopted 1960