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Canada: People & Society#

Population35,362,905 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groupsCanadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.44% (male 2,799,758/female 2,661,645)
15-24 years: 12.12% (male 2,204,127/female 2,080,587)
25-54 years: 40.32% (male 7,231,200/female 7,028,692)
55-64 years: 13.94% (male 2,443,452/female 2,484,788)
65 years and over: 18.18% (male 2,863,114/female 3,565,542) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.3%
youth dependency ratio: 23.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8%
potential support ratio: 4.2% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 42 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 43.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.74% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Population distributionvast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia
Urbanizationurban population: 81.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationToronto 5.993 million; Montreal 3.981 million; Vancouver 2.485 million; Calgary 1.337 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.326 million; Edmonton 1.272 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.1 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.9 years
male: 79.2 years
female: 84.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density2.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 400 (2013 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate30.1% (2014)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13.5%
male: 15%
female: 11.9% (2014 est.)