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Iraq: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq
local short form: Al Iraq/Eraq
CapitalBaghdad Baghdad
geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 24 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular - parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala'; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 May 2006)
cabinet: The Council of Ministers consists of the prime minister and cabinet ministers the prime minister proposes; approved by an absolute majority vote by the Council of Representatives
elections: president elected by Council of Representatives (parliament) to serve a four-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election in parliament last held on 11 November 2010 (next to be held on 30 April 2014)
election results: President Jalal TALABANI reelected on 11 November 2010; Council of Representatives vote count on second ballot - 195 votes; Nuri al-MALIKI reelected prime minister
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise temporary replacement for the Ba'athist Saddam-era flag
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band
Independence3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note - court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues); Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Higher Juridical Council, a 26-member independent committee of judicial officials; FSC members appointed for life ; Court of Cassation judges appointed for 1-year probationary period and upon satisfactory performance may be confirmed for permanent tenure until retirement at age 63
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); courts of first instance; personal status, labor, criminal, juvenile, and religious courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
Legislative branchunicameral Council of Representatives (325 seats consisting of 317 members elected by an optional open-list and representing a specific governorate, proportional representation system and 8 seats reserved for minorities; members serve 4-year terms); note - Iraq's Constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council
elections: last held on 7 March 2010 (next to be held on 30 April 2014 for an enlarged 328-seat parliament)
election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition - Iraqi National Movement 25.9%, State of Law coalition 25.8%, Iraqi National Alliance 19.4%, Kurdistan Alliance 15.3%, Goran (Change) List 4.4%, Tawafuq Front 2.7%, Iraqi Unity Alliance 2.9%, Kurdistan Islamic Union 2.3%, Kurdistan Islamic Group 1.4%; seats by coalition - NA
International organization participationABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National holidayRepublic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day
Political pressure groups and leadersSunni militias
Shia militias, some associated with political parties
Political parties and leadersBadr Organization (Hadi al-AMIRI)
Da'wa Party (Islamic) (Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI)
Da'wa Tanzim (Hashim al-MUSAWI branch)
Da-wa Tanzim (Abd al-Karim al-ANZI branch)
Fadilah Party (Hasan al-SHAMMARI and Ammar TUAMA)
Goran (Change) List (also known as the Movement for Change) (Nushirwan MUSTAFA)
Iraqi Covenant Gathering (Ahmad Abd al-Ghafur al-SAMARRAI)
Iraqi Constitutional Party (Jawad al-BULANI)
Iraqi Front for National Dialogue (Deputy Prime Minister Salih al-MUTLAQ)
Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP (Usama al-TIKRITI)
Iraqi Justice and Reform Movement (Shaykh Abdallah al-YAWR)
Iraqi National Accord or INA (Ayad ALLAWI)
Iraqi National Alliance (Ibrahim al-JAFARI)
Iraqi National Congress or INC (Ahmad CHALABI)
Iraqi National Movement (see Iraqi National Accord)
Iraqi Unity Alliance (Nauaf Saud ZAID)
Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI (Ammar al-HAKIM)
Kurdistan Alliance
Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP (Kurdistan Regional Government President Masud BARZANI)
Kurdistan Islamic Group (also called Islamic Group of Kurdistan) (Ali BAPIR)
Kurdistan Islamic Union ( Mohammed FARAI)
Future National Gathering (Finance Minister Rafi al-ISSAWI)
National Iraqiyun Gathering (Usama al-NUJAYFI)
National Movement for Reform and Development (Jamal al-KARBULI)
National Reform Trend (part of the National Iraqi Alliance) (former Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI)
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK (President Jalal TALABANI)
Sadrist Trend (Muqtada al-SADR)
Sahawa al-Iraq (Ahmad al-RISHAWI)
State of Law Coalition (Nouri al-MALIKI)
United Coalition (Usama al-NUJAYFI)
note: numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Luqman Abd al-Rahim FAYLI (since 31 May 2013)
chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (1) (202) 742-1600
FAX: (1) (202) 333-1129
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
National anthemname: "Mawtini" (My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL
note: adopted 2004; following the ousting of Saddam HUSSEIN, Iraq adopted "Mawtini," a popular folk song throughout the Arab world, which also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)golden eagle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert Stephen BEECROFT (since 9 October 2012)
embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad
mailing address: APO AE 09316
telephone: 0760-030-3000