Wir freuen uns über jede Rückmeldung. Ihre Botschaft geht nur an das Administrator Team. Danke fürs Mitmachen, das zur Verbesserung des Systems oder der Inhalte beitragen kann. Ihre Nachricht (optional mit Ihrer E-Mail):
unbekannter Gast

Iraq: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq
local short form: Al Iraq/Eraq
etymology: the name probably derives from "Uruk" (Biblical "Erech"), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
CapitalBaghdad Baghdad
geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 24 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular - parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala'; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit
Independence3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
National holidayRepublic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Fuad MASUM (since 24 July 2014); Vice Presidents Ayad ALLAWI (since 9 September 2014), Nuri al-MALIKI (since 8 September 2014), Usama al-NUJAYFI (since 8 September 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Haydar al-ABADI (since 8 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by Council of Representatives
election results: Fuad MASUM elected president; Council of Representatives vote - Fuad MASUM (PUK) 211, Barham SALIH (PUK) 17; Haydar al-ABADI (Da'wa Party) approved as prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (328 seats; 320 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 8 seats reserved for minorities; members serve 4-year terms); note - Iraq's constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council, but it has not been instituted
elections: last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by coalition/party – State of Law Coalition 95, Ahrar Bloc/Sadrist Trend 34, ISCI/Muwatin 30, KDP 25, United for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun 23, PUK 21, Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah 19, other Sunni coalitions/parties 15, Al-Arabiyah Coalition 10, Goran 9, other Shia parties/coalitions 9, Fadilah 6, National Reform Trend 6, Iraq Coalition 5, KIU 4, other 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note - court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Higher Juridical Council, a 25-member committee of judicial officials that manage the judiciary and prosecutors; FSC members appointed for life; Court of Cassation judges appointed for 1-year probationary period and upon satisfactory performance may be confirmed for permanent tenure until retirement nominally at age 63
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); courts of first instance; personal status, labor, criminal, juvenile, and religious courts
Political parties and leadersAl-Arabiyah Coalition (Salih al-MUTLAQ)
Badr Organization (Hadi al-AMIRI)
Da`wa Party (Vice President Nuri al-MALIKI)
Da`wa Tanzim (Hashim al-MUSAWI)
Fadilah Party (Muhammad al-YAQUBI)
Goran Party (Nawhirwan MUSTAFA)
Iraq Coalition (Abd al-Salam al-HAMMUDI)
Iraqi Front for National Dialogue (Salih al-MUTLAQ)
Iraqi Justice and Reform Movement (Shaykh Abdallah al-YAWR)
Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI/Muwatin Coalition (Ammar al-HAKIM)
Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP (Masud BARZANI)
Kurdistan Islamic Union or KIU (Mohammed FARA)
Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah (Vice President Ayad ALLAWI)
National Movement for Reform and Development (Muhammad al-KARBULI)
National Reform Trend (Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI)
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK (former President Jalal TALABANI)
Sadrist Movement or Ahrar Bloc (Muqtada al-SADR)
State of Law Coalition (Vice President Nuri al MALIKI)
Unites for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun (Vice President Usama al-NUJAYFI)
note: numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties
Political pressure groups and leadersSunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
International organization participationABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mohamad Jawad Mahdi Jawad ALQURAISHY (since 1 July 2016)
chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (1) (202) 742-1600
FAX: (1) (202) 333-1129
consulate(s) general: Detroit, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Douglas A. SILLIMAN (since 1 September 2016)
embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad
mailing address: APO AE 09316
telephone: 0760-030-3000
FAX: NA
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise temporary replacement for the Ba'athist SADDAM-era flag
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
National anthemname: "Mawtini" (My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL

note: adopted 2004; following the ouster of SADDAM Husayn, Iraq adopted "Mawtini," a popular folk song throughout the Arab world; also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people