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Ecuador: People & Society#

Population15,654,411 (July 2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.37% (2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 28.5% (male 2,275,448/female 2,184,706)
15-24 years: 18.6% (male 1,478,184/female 1,439,288)
25-54 years: 38.9% (male 2,968,757/female 3,124,938)
55-64 years: 6.9% (male 544,097/female 562,326)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 514,549/female 562,118) (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Birth rate18.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate5.04 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Afroecuadorian 7.2%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4% (2010 census)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (Castillian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%
note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.36 years
male: 73.4 years
female: 79.46 years (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 93.1%
female: 90.2% (2011 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
Net migration rate-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Total fertility rate2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2012)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS52,300 (2012)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,700 (2012)
Median agetotal: 26.7 years
male: 26 years
female: 27.3 years (2014 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
Education expenditures4.4% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 67% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 91.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 8.2% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 86.1% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 13.9% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2011 est.)
Major urban areas - populationGuayaquil 2.634 million; QUITO (capital) 1.622 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight6.2% (2004)
Health expenditures7.3% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density1.69 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density1.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.4% (2008)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: 9%
female: 15% (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 227,599
percentage: 8 % (2008 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.8 (2004 est.)
Demographic profileEcuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.
An estimated 2 to 3 million Ecuadorians live abroad, but increased unemployment in key receiving countries - Spain, the United States, and Italy - is slowing emigration and increasing the likelihood of returnees to Ecuador. The first large-scale emigration of Ecuadorians occurred between 1980 and 2000, when an economic crisis drove Ecuadorians from southern provinces to New York City, where they had trade contacts. A second, nationwide wave of emigration in the late 1990s was caused by another economic downturn, political instability, and a currency crisis. Spain was the logical destination because of its shared language and the wide availability of low-skilled, informal jobs at a time when increased border surveillance made illegal migration to the US difficult. Ecuador has a small but growing immigrant population and is Latin America's top recipient of refugees; 98% are neighboring Colombians fleeing violence in their country.
Contraceptive prevalence rate72.7% (2004)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 57.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 47.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.3 %
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2013)