Double-headed Eagle (Double Eagle), symbol of sovereignty and heraldic animal. In Byzantium the double-headed eagle was used by Palaeologi emperors, in Central Europe by the Hohenstaufen, Luxemburg und Wittelsbach dynasties, also by Richard of Cornwall in England (as elected German king 1257-1272) and by the Russian tsars. The Habsburgs have used it since Friedrich III, who granted it to the cities of Vienna and Krems; 1804-1918 imperial coat of arms of the Austrian Empire, 1934-38 coat of arms of the corporate state.
Literature#N. Weyss, Der Doppeladler, 1993.