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United States: Culture#

World Heritage#

Nobel Prize Winners (380)#

Here persons are counted for the country they born in or if their affiliation is with this country.
NameCategoryYearMotivation
Alexei A. AbrikosovPhysics2003"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
Jane AddamsPeace1931
Peter AgreChemistry2003"for the discovery of water channels"
George A. AkerlofEconomics2001"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"
Sidney AltmanChemistry1989"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
Luis Walter AlvarezPhysics1968"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
Carl David AndersonPhysics1936"for his discovery of the positron"
Philip Warren AndersonPhysics1977"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Christian B. AnfinsenChemistry1972"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"
Kenneth J. ArrowEconomics1972"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"
Richard AxelMedicine2004"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
Julius AxelrodMedicine1970"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
Sancar AzizChemistry2015"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"
Emily Greene BalchPeace1946
David BaltimoreMedicine1975"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
John BardeenPhysics1972"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
Barry C. BarishPhysics2017"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"
George Wells BeadleMedicine1958"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
Gary S. BeckerEconomics1992"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"
Baruj BenacerrafMedicine1980"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
Paul BergChemistry1980"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"
Hans Albrecht BethePhysics1967"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Eric BetzigChemistry2014"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"
Bruce A. BeutlerMedicine2011"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
J. Michael BishopMedicine1989"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
Elizabeth H. BlackburnMedicine2009"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
Günter BlobelMedicine1999"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
Konrad BlochMedicine1964"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
Felix BlochPhysics1952"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
Nicolaas BloembergenPhysics1981"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Baruch S. BlumbergMedicine1976"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
Norman E. BorlaugPeace1970
Paul D. BoyerChemistry1997"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"
Willard S. BoylePhysics2009"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
Walter Houser BrattainPhysics1956"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
Sydney BrennerMedicine2002"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
Percy Williams BridgmanPhysics1946"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"
Michael S. BrownMedicine1985"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
Herbert C. BrownChemistry1979"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"
James M. Buchanan Jr.Economics1986"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"
Pearl BuckLiterature1938"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"
Linda B. BuckMedicine2004"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
Ralph BunchePeace1950
Nicholas Murray ButlerPeace1931
Melvin CalvinChemistry1961"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"
William C. CampbellMedicine2015"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"
Mario R. CapecchiMedicine2007"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
Alexis CarrelMedicine1912"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
Jimmy CarterPeace2002"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
Thomas R. CechChemistry1989"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
Martin ChalfieChemistry2008"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
Owen ChamberlainPhysics1959"for their discovery of the antiproton"
Subramanyan ChandrasekharPhysics1983"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
Steven ChuPhysics1997"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
Ronald H. CoaseEconomics1991"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"
Stanley CohenMedicine1986"for their discoveries of growth factors"
Arthur Holly ComptonPhysics1927"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
Leon Neil CooperPhysics1972"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
Elias James CoreyChemistry1990"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
Carl Ferdinand CoriMedicine1947"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
Gerty Theresa Cori, née RadnitzMedicine1947"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
Allan M. CormackMedicine1979"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
Eric A. CornellPhysics2001"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
André Frédéric CournandMedicine1956"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
Donald J. CramChemistry1987"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
James Watson CroninPhysics1980"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
Robert F. Curl Jr.Chemistry1996"for their discovery of fullerenes"
Raymond Davis Jr.Physics2002"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Clinton Joseph DavissonPhysics1937"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
Charles Gates DawesPeace1925
Angus DeatonEconomics2015"for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare"
Gerard DebreuEconomics1983"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"
Hans G. DehmeltPhysics1989"for the development of the ion trap technique"
Johann DeisenhoferChemistry1988"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
Max DelbrückMedicine1969"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
Peter A. DiamondEconomics2010"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"
Peter C. DohertyMedicine1996"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"
Edward Adelbert DoisyMedicine1943"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"
Vincent du VigneaudChemistry1955"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"
Bob DylanLiterature2016"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"
Gerald M. EdelmanMedicine1972"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
Gertrude B. ElionMedicine1988"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
Thomas Stearns EliotLiterature1948"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"
John Franklin EndersMedicine1954"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
Robert F. Engle IIIEconomics2003"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"
Joseph ErlangerMedicine1944"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"
Leo EsakiPhysics1973"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Eugene F. FamaEconomics2013"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"
William FaulknerLiterature1949"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"
John B. FennChemistry2002"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"
Richard P. FeynmanPhysics1965"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
Andrew Z. FireMedicine2006"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
Edmond H. FischerMedicine1992"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
Val Logsdon FitchPhysics1980"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
Paul J. FloryChemistry1974"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"
Robert W. FogelEconomics1993"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"
William Alfred FowlerPhysics1983"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
Joachim FrankChemistry2017"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"
Jerome I. FriedmanPhysics1990"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Milton FriedmanEconomics1976"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"
Robert F. FurchgottMedicine1998"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
D. Carleton GajdusekMedicine1976"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
Herbert Spencer GasserMedicine1944"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"
Murray Gell-MannPhysics1969"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
Riccardo GiacconiPhysics2002"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
Ivar GiaeverPhysics1973"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
William Francis GiauqueChemistry1949"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
Walter GilbertChemistry1980"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
Alfred G. GilmanMedicine1994"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
Donald Arthur GlaserPhysics1960"for the invention of the bubble chamber"
Sheldon Lee GlashowPhysics1979"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Roy J. GlauberPhysics2005"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
Maria Goeppert MayerPhysics1963"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Joseph L. GoldsteinMedicine1985"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.Peace2007"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
Clive W.J. GrangerEconomics2003"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"
Paul GreengardMedicine2000"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
Carol W. GreiderMedicine2009"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
David J. GrossPhysics2004"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
Robert H. GrubbsChemistry2005"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
Roger GuilleminMedicine1977"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
F. Duncan M. HaldanePhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
John L. HallPhysics2005"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
Jeffrey C. HallMedicine2017"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"
Lars Peter HansenEconomics2013"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"
John C. HarsanyiEconomics1994"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"
Oliver HartEconomics2016"for their contributions to contract theory"
Haldan Keffer HartlineMedicine1967"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
Leland H. HartwellMedicine2001"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
Herbert A. HauptmanChemistry1985"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
Richard F. HeckChemistry2010"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"
James J. HeckmanEconomics2000"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"
Alan J. HeegerChemistry2000"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"
Ernest Miller HemingwayLiterature1954"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"
Philip Showalter HenchMedicine1950"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
Dudley R. HerschbachChemistry1986"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
Alfred D. HersheyMedicine1969"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
George H. HitchingsMedicine1988"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
Roald HoffmannChemistry1981"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"
Robert HofstadterPhysics1961"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Robert W. HolleyMedicine1968"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
Bengt HolmströmEconomics2016"for their contributions to contract theory"
H. Robert HorvitzMedicine2002"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
David H. HubelMedicine1981"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
Charles Brenton HugginsMedicine1966"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
Cordell HullPeace1945
Russell A. HulsePhysics1993"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
Leonid HurwiczEconomics2007"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
Louis J. IgnarroMedicine1998"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
Daniel KahnemanEconomics2002"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"
Eric R. KandelMedicine2000"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
Jerome KarleChemistry1985"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
Martin KarplusChemistry2013"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
Frank Billings KelloggPeace1929
Henry W. KendallPhysics1990"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Edward Calvin KendallMedicine1950"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
Wolfgang KetterlePhysics2001"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Har Gobind KhoranaMedicine1968"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
Jack S. KilbyPhysics2000"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
Martin Luther King Jr.Peace1964
Lawrence R. KleinEconomics1980"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"
William S. KnowlesChemistry2001"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"
Brian K. KobilkaChemistry2012"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"
Walter KohnChemistry1998"for his development of the density-functional theory"
Tjalling C. KoopmansEconomics1975"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"
Arthur KornbergMedicine1959"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
Roger D. KornbergChemistry2006"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"
J. Michael KosterlitzPhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
Edwin G. KrebsMedicine1992"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
Herbert KroemerPhysics2000"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
Paul KrugmanEconomics2008"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"
Polykarp KuschPhysics1955"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
Simon KuznetsEconomics1971"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"
Finn E. KydlandEconomics2004"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"
Willis Eugene LambPhysics1955"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
Karl LandsteinerMedicine1930"for his discovery of human blood groups"
Irving LangmuirChemistry1932"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"
Robert B. LaughlinPhysics1998"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Paul C. LauterburMedicine2003"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
Ernest Orlando LawrencePhysics1939"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
Joshua LederbergMedicine1958"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
Leon M. LedermanPhysics1988"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
David M. LeePhysics1996"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
Tsung-Dao (T.D.) LeePhysics1957"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
Yuan T. LeeChemistry1986"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
Robert J. LefkowitzChemistry2012"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"
Anthony J. LeggettPhysics2003"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
Wassily LeontiefEconomics1973"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"
Michael LevittChemistry2013"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
Edward B. LewisMedicine1995"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Sinclair LewisLiterature1930"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"
Sir Arthur LewisEconomics1979"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"
Willard Frank LibbyChemistry1960"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"
Fritz Albert LipmannMedicine1953"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
William N. LipscombChemistry1976"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"
Robert E. Lucas Jr.Economics1995"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"
Salvador E. LuriaMedicine1969"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
Alan G. MacDiarmidChemistry2000"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"
Roderick MacKinnonChemistry2003"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"
Rudolph A. MarcusChemistry1992"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
Harry M. MarkowitzEconomics1990"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"
George Catlett MarshallPeace1953
Eric S. MaskinEconomics2007"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
John C. MatherPhysics2006"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
Barbara McClintockMedicine1983"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
Daniel L. McFaddenEconomics2000"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"
Edwin Mattison McMillanChemistry1951"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"
Craig C. MelloMedicine2006"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
Robert Bruce MerrifieldChemistry1984"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
Robert C. MertonEconomics1997"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"
Albert Abraham MichelsonPhysics1907"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"
Merton H. MillerEconomics1990"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"
Robert Andrews MillikanPhysics1923"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
George Richards MinotMedicine1934"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
Franco ModiglianiEconomics1985"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"
Paul ModrichChemistry2015"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"
Mario J. MolinaChemistry1995"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"
Stanford MooreChemistry1972"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
Thomas Hunt MorganMedicine1933"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"
Toni MorrisonLiterature1993"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"
Dale T. MortensenEconomics2010"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"
Rudolf Ludwig MössbauerPhysics1961"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
John Raleigh MottPeace1946
Ben Roy MottelsonPhysics1975"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Hermann Joseph MullerMedicine1946"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
Robert S. MullikenChemistry1966"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"
Kary B. MullisChemistry1993"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"
Robert A. MundellEconomics1999"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"
Ferid MuradMedicine1998"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
William Parry MurphyMedicine1934"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
Joseph E. MurrayMedicine1990"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
Roger B. MyersonEconomics2007"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
Shuji NakamuraPhysics2014"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"
Yoichiro NambuPhysics2008"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"
John F. Nash Jr.Economics1994"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"
Daniel NathansMedicine1978"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
Ei-ichi NegishiChemistry2010"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"
Marshall W. NirenbergMedicine1968"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
Douglass C. NorthEconomics1993"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"
John Howard NorthropChemistry1946"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
John O'KeefeMedicine2014"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
Eugene Gladstone O'NeillLiterature1936"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"
Barack H. ObamaPeace2009"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"
Severo OchoaMedicine1959"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
George A. OlahChemistry1994"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"
Lars OnsagerChemistry1968"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"
Douglas D. OsheroffPhysics1996"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
Elinor OstromEconomics2009"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
George E. PaladeMedicine1974"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
Wolfgang PauliPhysics1945"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"
Linus Carl PaulingPeace1962"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"
Charles J. PedersenChemistry1987"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
Arno Allan PenziasPhysics1978"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Martin L. PerlPhysics1995"for the discovery of the tau lepton"
Saul PerlmutterPhysics2011"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
Edmund S. PhelpsEconomics2006"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"
William D. PhillipsPhysics1997"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
H. David PolitzerPhysics2004"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
John A. PopleChemistry1998"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
Edward C. PrescottEconomics2004"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"
Ilya PrigogineChemistry1977"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"
Stanley B. PrusinerMedicine1997"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
Edward Mills PurcellPhysics1952"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
Isidor Isaac RabiPhysics1944"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
Leo James RainwaterPhysics1975"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Norman F. RamseyPhysics1989"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Frederick ReinesPhysics1995"for the detection of the neutrino"
Theodore William RichardsChemistry1914"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"
Dickinson W. RichardsMedicine1956"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
Robert C. RichardsonPhysics1996"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
Burton RichterPhysics1976"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
Adam G. RiessPhysics2011"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
Frederick Chapman RobbinsMedicine1954"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
Richard J. RobertsMedicine1993"for their discoveries of split genes"
Martin RodbellMedicine1994"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
Theodore RooseveltPeace1906
Elihu RootPeace1912
Michael RosbashMedicine2017"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"
Irwin RoseChemistry2004"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"
Alvin E. RothEconomics2012"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"
James E. RothmanMedicine2013"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
Peyton RousMedicine1966"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"
F. Sherwood RowlandChemistry1995"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"
Paul A. SamuelsonEconomics1970"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"
Thomas J. SargentEconomics2011"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
Andrew V. SchallyMedicine1977"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
Arthur Leonard SchawlowPhysics1981"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Randy W. SchekmanMedicine2013"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
Thomas C. SchellingEconomics2005"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"
Brian P. SchmidtPhysics2011"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
Myron S. ScholesEconomics1997"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"
John Robert SchriefferPhysics1972"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
Richard R. SchrockChemistry2005"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
Theodore W. SchultzEconomics1979"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"
Melvin SchwartzPhysics1988"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
Julian SchwingerPhysics1965"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
Glenn Theodore SeaborgChemistry1951"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"
Emilio Gino SegrèPhysics1959"for their discovery of the antiproton"
Lloyd S. ShapleyEconomics2012"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"
Phillip A. SharpMedicine1993"for their discoveries of split genes"
William F. SharpeEconomics1990"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"
K. Barry SharplessChemistry2001"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"
Robert J. ShillerEconomics2013"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"
Osamu ShimomuraChemistry2008"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
William Bradford ShockleyPhysics1956"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
Clifford G. ShullPhysics1994"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
Herbert A. SimonEconomics1978"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"
Christopher A. SimsEconomics2011"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
Richard E. SmalleyChemistry1996"for their discovery of fullerenes"
Hamilton O. SmithMedicine1978"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
Vernon L. SmithEconomics2002"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"
George E. SmithPhysics2009"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
Oliver SmithiesMedicine2007"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
George F. SmootPhysics2006"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
George D. SnellMedicine1980"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
Robert M. SolowEconomics1987"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"
A. Michael SpenceEconomics2001"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"
Roger W. SperryMedicine1981"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
Wendell Meredith StanleyChemistry1946"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
William H. SteinChemistry1972"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
John SteinbeckLiterature1962"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"
Ralph M. SteinmanMedicine2011"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"
Thomas A. SteitzChemistry2009"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
Otto SternPhysics1943"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
George J. StiglerEconomics1982"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"
Joseph E. StiglitzEconomics2001"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"
Sir J. Fraser StoddartChemistry2016"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"
Horst L. StörmerPhysics1998"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Thomas C. SüdhofMedicine2013"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
James Batcheller SumnerChemistry1946"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.Medicine1971"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
Jack W. SzostakMedicine2009"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
Edward Lawrie TatumMedicine1958"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
Henry TaubeChemistry1983"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"
Richard E. TaylorPhysics1990"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.Physics1993"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
Howard Martin TeminMedicine1975"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
Richard H. ThalerEconomics2017"for his contributions to behavioural economics"
Max TheilerMedicine1951"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
E. Donnall ThomasMedicine1990"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
Kip S. ThornePhysics2017"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"
David J. ThoulessPhysics2016"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
Samuel Chao Chung TingPhysics1976"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
James TobinEconomics1981"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"
Susumu TonegawaMedicine1987"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
Charles Hard TownesPhysics1964"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
Roger Y. TsienChemistry2008"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
Daniel C. TsuiPhysics1998"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Harold Clayton UreyChemistry1934"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"
John Hasbrouck van VleckPhysics1977"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Harold E. VarmusMedicine1989"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
William VickreyEconomics1996"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"
Georg von BékésyMedicine1961"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
Selman Abraham WaksmanMedicine1952"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
George WaldMedicine1967"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
Arieh WarshelChemistry2013"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
James Dewey WatsonMedicine1962"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
Steven WeinbergPhysics1979"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Rainer WeissPhysics2017"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"
Thomas Huckle WellerMedicine1954"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
George Hoyt WhippleMedicine1934"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
Carl E. WiemanPhysics2001"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Eric F. WieschausMedicine1995"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Torsten N. WieselMedicine1981"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
Eugene Paul WignerPhysics1963"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Frank WilczekPhysics2004"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
Jody WilliamsPeace1997"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"
Oliver E. WilliamsonEconomics2009"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
Robert Woodrow WilsonPhysics1978"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Kenneth G. WilsonPhysics1982"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
Thomas Woodrow WilsonPeace1919
David J. WinelandPhysics2012"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"
Robert Burns WoodwardChemistry1965"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"
Kurt WüthrichChemistry2002"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"
Rosalyn YalowMedicine1977"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
Shinya YamanakaMedicine2012"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
Chen Ning YangPhysics1957"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
Michael W. YoungMedicine2017"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"
Hideki YukawaPhysics1949"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
Ahmed H. ZewailChemistry1999"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

National Parks#