b. Berlin (Germany), April 14, 1882, d. Vienna, June 22, 1936 (murdered). Philosopher. Logical positivist, founder of the Vienna Circle, from 1922 university professor in Vienna. Studied sciences and mathematics in Heidelberg, Lausanne and Berlin, favourite pupil of M. Planck, under whom he finished his doctoral thesis in 1904. Friendship with A. Einstein; was the first to transfer the latter's theory of relativity into philosophy. Concentrated on questions of cognition, truth, logic and mathematics. To him philosophy was the logical explanation of concepts. Shot by a psychopathic pupil in the University of Vienna.
Works#Lebensweisheit, 1908; Das Wesen der Wahrheit nach der modernen Logik, 1911 (post-doctoral thesis); Raum und Zeit in der gegenwaert. Physik, 1917; Allg. Erkenntnislehre, 1918; Fragen der Ethik, 1930. - Editor: series "Schriften zur wiss. Weltauffassung", 1929-1937.
Literature#B. McGuiness (ed.), Zurueck zu S., 1985; P. Mahr (ed.), Erinnerung an M. S., exhibition catalogue, Austrian National Library, Vienna 1996; OeBL.